41 year-old male was recently diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis (MS) after episodes of leg and shoulder weakness and parasthesis. Lately he experiences dizziness. His MRI showed several demyelinating lesions, other ancillary tests showed demyelinating damage to the auditory and visual pathway. Currently he has no functional or sensorial deficiencies. He was offered several immunomodulatory treatment options: Rebif, Betaferon and Copaxone, and asks about their pros, cons and complications, and about the differential diagnosis.
74-year-old male with gradual pan-cytopenia with predominant thrombocytopenia underwent a bone marrow biopsy that confirmed the diagnosis of Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). He is currently in good general health except for slowly progressive weakness and being constantly tired. In the expert's opinion, there is no indication for therapy at this time, since the counts are satisfactory for every-day living. Nevertheless, the treating options are erythopoietin injections, lenalidomide, Vidaza or Dacogen therapy, or stem cell transplantation.
A 74 year-old male, that was diagnosed as suffering from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with kariotype del(11)q(11) by a bone marrow biopsy, following a gradual pancytopenia. The patient complains about slowly progressive weakness and being constantly tired.He was offered chemotherapy, but he declined this treatment because of fear that it would worsen his already severe weakness.
36-year-old otherwise healthy female presented with an atypical pap smear. Biopsy of cervix revealed poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining showed the cells positive for NSE, SYN, CHR, and 90% positive for Ki67 (proliferative index). The findings of the PET-FDG test showed pathological absorption of FDG as a primary tumor of the cervix, towards the left side of the body. Moreover, evidence is seen of nodal metastatic spread in the retroperitoneum and pelvis, mainly on the left.
74-year-old male suffers from pancytopenia and symptomatic anemia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed some myelodysplasia, and the patient started immune therapy. He continues to require repeated blood transfusions. The expert recommends to complete the diagnostic workup. If no other disease is diagnosed than it can be assumed that the patient carries the diagnosis of MDS hypoplastic type.
66-year-old female underwent a left suboccipital craniotomy for resection of a tentorial meningioma. The postoperative course has been difficult, marked by deterioration associated with posterior temporal and cerebellar edema and hemorrhage. First she seems to be in good general conditions showing only a slight strength deficiency in the left upper limb, but about a month after the surgery she started showing asthenia and melena, and esophageal gastroduodenoscopy revealed a sclerosis of active arterial bleeding from duodenal ulcer.