72-year-old male had a TIA in 1995 and has been in chronic atrial fibrillation since 1992. In 2005 2 ablative procedures were ineffective. The main treatment strategy for his atrial fibrillation has consisted of rate control and oral anticoagulation. Despite several attempts of different medications (digoxin, beta-blockers) he has remained in atrial fibrillation with a relatively moderate to fast ventricular response.
47-year-old female with a 4-year history of cervical dystonia. She has been treated with botulinum toxin injections which were ineffective for her. In the expert's opinion, the success of Botulinum toxin in cervical dystonia depends on a thorough clinical assessment, exact targeting of the chosen muscles, and adequate doses of toxin injected. The expert also suggests additional or alternative treatment strategies: medical treatment by different oral drugs, or deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus interna.
66-year-old female was diagnosed, following persistent cough, with lung tumour with concomitant pulmonary nodules and a measurable enlargement of lymph nodes. FBS was positive for well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma and a needle biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma with associated neuroendocrine differentiation.
48-year-old male underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis. During post-surgery he developed intense abdominal colics and a situation of hepatitis, probably from medicines as the tests carried out. Performed tests revealed changes of haematic values related to the hepato-renal function. MR-cholangiography showed cystic formation in the right lobe of the liver, and tumor markers that gave evidence of an increase of alpha-fetoprotein which should be monitored.