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Left cervicobrachialgia following cervical discectomy

43-year-old male suffered of cervical disc herniation, and therefore C5-6 and C6-7 discectomy and fusion were done. About one year later he experienced acute sciatica followed by hot pricking sensation in the arm and neck. MRI showed far lateral bulge of L3-4 on the left and small disc bulge on C4-5, and a larger C5-6 disc herniation. Neurological examination disclosed C6-C7 radiculopathy on the left, minimal weakness of biceps and triceps muscles and reduced biceps reflex. EMG and physical examination were consistent with bilateral radiculopathy, attributed to small disc herniation.

Cervical Disk Hernia_1

62-year-old male complained about sensation of pins and needles in the fingers accompanied by pain and feeling of pressure in the toes. The patient underwent CT and MRT of the cervical spine and conduction studies that showed signs of severe chronic neuropathy, Lordosis, disc hernias with pressure on the dural sac and narrowing of the canal together with segment myelopathy and spinal stenosis. In light of the weakness of the muscles in the patient's right hand, the expert recommendes a surgical solution.

Spinal pathology

75-year-old male with multiple complaints related to both his lumbar and cervical spine. He complains of low back pain, cramping and numbness in his thigh muscles, radiating left leg pain to his toes, as well as unsteady gait. He experiences numbness in his shoulders, arms and hands that gets worse over the day. He had a C4-5 fusion and a lumbar procedure at L4-5. The cervical MTI showed degenerative disease worse at C6-7 where there is moderate central and foraminal stenosis.

Spinal pathology – additional opinion

75-year-old male with multiple complaints related to both his lumbar and cervical spine. He complains of low back pain, cramping and numbness in his thigh muscles, radiating left leg pain to his toes, as well as unsteady gait. He experiences numbness in his shoulders, arms and hands that gets worse over the day. He had a C4-5 fusion and a lumbar procedure at L4-5. The cervical MTI showed degenerative disease worse at C6-7 where there is moderate central and foraminal stenosis.

Cervical Dystonia

47-year-old female with a 4-year history of cervical dystonia. She has been treated with botulinum toxin injections which were ineffective for her. In the expert's opinion, the success of Botulinum toxin in cervical dystonia depends on a thorough clinical assessment, exact targeting of the chosen muscles, and adequate doses of toxin injected. The expert also suggests additional or alternative treatment strategies: medical treatment by different oral drugs, or deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus interna.

 

Cervical Dystonia – additional opinion

47-year-old female with neck problems underwent Blink Reflex tests and EMG of the neck, and was diagnosed with cervical dystonia. Medical treatments available for cervical dystonia include anticholinergic therapy, Baclofen, or deep brain stimulation, but the mainstay of therapy remains botulinum toxin injections, which are considered the superior treatment for symptom control with less side effects in comparison to oral medications.