61-year-old male with a history of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy had a sudden decrease in vision in his right eye. He was seen by an ophthalmologist who found a large hemorrhage in the macula. He then consulted with professor who diagnosed him as having Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy and he had an intravitreal injection of Avastin. Following this, the patient had a Vitrectomy operation. Photographs and Indocyanine angiography show a large subretinal hemorrhage, consistent with Age Related Macular Degeneration, and perhaps Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy.
63-year-old female with clinical ocular history of mild myopia and presbyopia, started seeing floaters in her right eye, which worsened on the next day and were accompanied by photophobia. Examination revealed the existence of posterior vitreous detachment, with no evidence for retinal tear. Three days later she was examined again due to worsening of the symptoms and laser photocoagulation was performed at an area of suspected retinal traction. She still experiences the existence of floaters as well as light flashes.
A 43 years old woman man who presented with various symptoms consisting of visual disturbances, burning sensation in the eyes, headache, hypersensitivity to noise and dizziness. Repeated neurological examinations were reported normal. A thorough neurological work-up that included blood tests, brain MRI, EEG and echocardiography was normal.
69-year-old female with a diagnosis of Bilateral Colloid Degeneration. Her past Ophthalmological history began about 6 to 8 months ago with symptoms of dark spots and reduction of perception of luminosity in the visual field and complaints of a burning sensation on the sides of both eyes.
41-year-old female noticed some decrease in her vision and was diagnosed with Retinitis Pigmentosa. The progression of her disease is slow but visual fields showed contraction and loss of peripheral vision in both eyes.
47-year-old female who had the onset of persistent vertigo. The first evaluations revealed right beating nystagmus on gaze straight and to the right, unsteady gait with limb ataxia, and positive head thrust to the left. Improvement seemed to be occurring in that gait deviation with eyes closed was no longer present. Vestibular physical therapy exercises were started. On the next evaluations there was paroxysmal positional vertigo from the left ear and minimal neurosensory hearing loss. An audiogram showed minor neurosensory deafness.
41 year-old male was recently diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis (MS) after episodes of leg and shoulder weakness and parasthesis. Lately he experiences dizziness. His MRI showed several demyelinating lesions, other ancillary tests showed demyelinating damage to the auditory and visual pathway. Currently he has no functional or sensorial deficiencies. He was offered several immunomodulatory treatment options: Rebif, Betaferon and Copaxone, and asks about their pros, cons and complications, and about the differential diagnosis.
10 months old, female. After normal birth (at the 40th week of pregnancy) and neonatal period, started to suffer from gastroesophageal reflux and recurrent respiratory infections, at times with broncospasm. In addition, psychomotor retardation was found and the young patient was assessed by a neurologist. The tests run (EMG and genetics for SMA) pointed to the diagnosis of Spinal Amyotrophy.
After hospitalization due to catarrhal bronchitis, the patient was discharged in good general conditions with recomendations for respiratory physiotherapy and neurological rehabilitation.