7-year-old boy with prodrome of right-sided and right face weakness, gait ataxia, and intermittent headaches. Head computed tomography demonstrated a tumor at the brainstem/posterior fossa, and then MRI confirmed a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (a typical brainstem glioma). Following initiation of dexamethasone (Decadron, steroid for vasogenic edema), the child has started experimental treatment with the medicine nimotuzumab to be followed with conventional radiotherapy.
7-year-old boy presented with general asthenia, hand tremors, anxiety and episodes of diffuse headache. Exam noted facial asymmetry and symptoms progressed to vomiting. The patient had ataxia, dyarthria and facial weakness. CT and MRI revealed a expansile lesion of the brainstem and signs of obstructive hydrocephalus and possible leptomeningeal dissemination. Steriods improved clinical symptoms. The patient started an experimental treatment with Nimotuzumab, and Radiation therapy is planned to continue with Nimotuzumab.
47-year-old female who had the onset of persistent vertigo. The first evaluations revealed right beating nystagmus on gaze straight and to the right, unsteady gait with limb ataxia, and positive head thrust to the left. Improvement seemed to be occurring in that gait deviation with eyes closed was no longer present. Vestibular physical therapy exercises were started. On the next evaluations there was paroxysmal positional vertigo from the left ear and minimal neurosensory hearing loss. An audiogram showed minor neurosensory deafness.
41 year-old male was recently diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis (MS) after episodes of leg and shoulder weakness and parasthesis. Lately he experiences dizziness. His MRI showed several demyelinating lesions, other ancillary tests showed demyelinating damage to the auditory and visual pathway. Currently he has no functional or sensorial deficiencies. He was offered several immunomodulatory treatment options: Rebif, Betaferon and Copaxone, and asks about their pros, cons and complications, and about the differential diagnosis.
7-year-old boy was diagnosed with diffused intra-axial brainstem expansive lesion. The spine MRI scan indicates spread of the patient's tumor down along the spinal cord, in spite of having reduced at the brainstem. The expert agrees that radiation to the spine that the child started receiving is appropriate, and recommends that the child resume chemotherapy to cover the tumor more globally.
A 23 year old female was diagnosed 7 years ago with multiple sclerosis. The patient had 4 acute attacks 7 years ago, and since then she has been treated by Avonex. The patient had no attacks since then, feel healthy and lead a normal healthy life as a busy university student. She enjoys sports several times a week, and there are no problems regarding her physical and mental function. Neurologically, the only reminiscence of her illness is a positive Babinsky sign in the left leg and a temporal blindness in the left eye.
23-year-old female had episodes of hemiparesis, dysmetria and parenthesis underwent MRI that showed a demyelization process. After she was hospitalized with Left Retro-Bulbar Optic Neuritis, she started treatment with weekly injections of AVONEX (Interferon beta-1a). Now she is in good general health and asks about stopping the Anovex treatment. The expert answers that she shouldn't stop the treatment , because the purpose of the medications is to prevent exacerbations, that may leave neurologic residual dysfunction.
66-year-old female underwent a left suboccipital craniotomy for resection of a tentorial meningioma. The postoperative course has been difficult, marked by deterioration associated with posterior temporal and cerebellar edema and hemorrhage. First she seems to be in good general conditions showing only a slight strength deficiency in the left upper limb, but about a month after the surgery she started showing asthenia and melena, and esophageal gastroduodenoscopy revealed a sclerosis of active arterial bleeding from duodenal ulcer.
53-year-old male with lower motor neuropathy affecting all 4 limbs. The neurologic examination showed left limb hyposthenia, left upper limb hypotrophy and diffuse fasciculations. The patient was diagnosed with “suspect motor neuron disease" and was treated with IVIG cycles with slight initial improvement, but later lack of response and worsening of the clinical condition.
7-year-old boy was diagnosed with diffused intra-axial brainstem expansive lesion. He underwent radiation therapy but his physical condition is worrisome. His relatives ask the expert's opinion about experimental therapy consists of combination Antineoplaston and radiation therapy for the treatment of gliomas in children, that is now in clinical trial. The expert doesn't recommend it.