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Incidental Finding of Thyroid Gland Nodule

30-year-old female was noted to have two right lobe of thyroid gland nodules on a neck ultrasound. A diagnosis of incidental finding of thyroid gland nodule in the setting of normal thyroid gland function was established. In the expert's opinion, the clinical presentation is consistent with a "cold" thyroid gland nodule. He recommends an ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy, because the results of the cytology can guide the treatment and dictate the extent of surgery.

Lichen planopilaris (follicular lichen planus) affecting the scalp

A 50 years old female complained about appearance of detached pruritic symptomatology affecting the trunk and the scalp. The patient carried out numerous dermatology specialist examinations on the following 3 years. Her allergy tests results were negative and she diagnosed with a seborrhoeic dermatitis affecting the scalp. As the patient did not achieve any result with the prescribed therapies ,she carried out biopsy. The biopsy was consistent with a “Lichen Planopilaris.”

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) secondary to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

15 years old patient presented with clinical syndrome of fever, fatigue, and diarrhea. Laboratory findings showed severe anemia with findings of microangiopathic hemolysis (schistocytes, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated LDH) and severe thrombocytopenia. He was later documented to have fluctuating ADAMTS13 activity that appeared to correlate with the hematologic abnormalities. He also had urinary findings of hematuria, moderate proteinuria, and creatinine as high as 1.4 mg/dL.

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma

51-year-old male with past medical history that is remarkable for Sino-nasal adenocarcinoma which was resected 13 years ago, and a recurrent local tumor which was re-operated. Since late 2007, the patient has been noticed to have mild macrocytic anemia and leucopenia, and the hematologist thought it might represent a myelodysplastic syndrome.

Chronic relapsing, non progressing eruption of purpuric papulovesicular lesions

A 57 year old female complained about appearance of red to dark red pruritic bullous lesions . These lesions were, and still are, located on the legs from the knee to the ankles, and on the back of the feet. These manifestations appeared in variable phases during the next 4 years, with episodes of more numerous pustules appearing in some periods, and more isolated in other periods.

Chronic Glomerulonephritis

42-year-old female with chronic renal insufficiency secondary to immune complex mediated glomerulonephropathy, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. The recommended solution for her is kidney transplant. Possible causes of immune complex deposition disease include Cryoglobulinemia, IgA nephropathy, Membranous nephropathy, and Idiopathic immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis which is the diagnosis of exclusion.

Metastatic non small cell lung Cancer

67 year old male, previously a heavy smoker, suffering for 2 months from weakness, diminished appetite and weight loss. Tests showed a mass in right arm, possibly attached to muscle, and tenderness in right ribs. Chest CT showed a mass in LLL, lung foci, suspected secondary spread and masses in upper abdomen. CT guided biopsy from right lung mass was consistent with non small cell carcinoma with extensive necrosis. SPECT bone scan showed many focal findings in the vertebrae L,D2,7, most of the ribs bilaterally and in the limbs- suspected for secondary pathology.

B-cell lymphoma

59-year-old-male underwent biopsy, after founding epigastric mass, and was diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma. He was treated as an aggressive lymphoma with R-CHOP. Because of neurtopenia, the planned 6 cycle regimen was not completed and a radiation course was administered. Since then the patient feels well, but continues to have prolonged and persistent neutropenia with mild thrombocytopenia. The expert suggests differential diagnosis of the bone marrow problem, and recommends additional diagnostic workup.

Small Cell Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Cervix – additional opinion

36-year-old otherwise healthy female presented with an atypical pap smear. Biopsy of cervix revealed poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining showed the cells positive for NSE, SYN, CHR, and 90% positive for Ki67 (proliferative index). The findings of the PET-FDG test showed pathological absorption of FDG as a primary tumor of the cervix, towards the left side of the body. Moreover, evidence is seen of nodal metastatic spread in the retroperitoneum and pelvis, mainly on the left.

Hepatic metastases from prostatic adenocarcinoma

A 66 year old man that was diagnosed with prostate cancer underwent radical prostatectomy 2 years ago. Pathology result of the surgical specimen revealed poorly differentiated prostate carcinoma with positive surgical margins. He was treated with antiandrogens and adjuvant radiation therapy. Since the beginning of the last year and under hormonal monotherapy with Casodex his PSA levels doubled. PET CT of the abdomen and the pelvis revealed hepatic lesion.

Metastatic, Non Small Cell Lung Cancer

67-year-old with multiple co morbities: Heart, renal, vascular, hypertensive. His biopsy showed left lower lobe lung mass that was a TTF-1 Non small cell lung cancer- most likely an adenocarcinoma. Multiple small nodules < than 1cm were noted without certain etiology, together with “masses” in the upper abdomen and left arm. Recommended therapy includes single agent Vinorelbine.

Metastatic melanoma stage IIIC

A 58 year-old woman who first presented for evaluation of a bleeding pigmented lesion on the back. An excisional biopsy was performed and revealed a nodular melanoma. A wide excision was performed and no residual melanoma was identified. After a sentinel lymph node biopsy found to be positive, a completion of node dissection was performed and on pathological evaluation, total 6 of 17 lymph nodes contained melanoma.
Staging studies included whole body PET/CT scan and a head CT. FDG uptake by PET was noted in the left axilla only, with no evidence of more distant metastatic disease.

Portosystemic Encephalopathy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Adult male with a history of hepatitis C, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and hepatocellular carcinoma. Patient treated for NHL with CHOP-R 4 years ago. However, post-treatment, he had continued presumed bone marrow suppression. He was diagnosed 2 years later with HCC and underwent TACE with good effect. Since the TACE, the patient has had persistent and worsening hepatic dysfunction with portal hypertension and ascites. Recently, the patient developed encephalopathy and was treated, as described below, with fast return to consciousness.

Stage 4 Neuroblastoma – additional opinion

1.5-year-old male suffered from eye swelling. His MRI revealed expansive lesion of left lateral orbital wall origin, with compression on the lateral rectus muscle. Later he was hospitalized due to fever and vomiting in left orbital lesion, suspecting a metastatic neuroblastoma. His eye examination revealed exophthalmus of the eye with exophoria and light dysfunction of the lateral rectus. His biopsies were indicative of stroma-poor neuroblastoma.

Small Cell Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Cervix

36-year-old otherwise healthy female underwent routine tests that found atypical cells in Pap smear. Her cervix was biopsied, and found poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. The findings of the PET-FDG test showed pathological absorption of FDG as a primary tumor of the cervix, towards the left side of the body. Moreover, evidence is seen of nodal metastatic spread in the retroperitoneum and pelvis. In the expert's opinion the patient has locally extensive small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix with extensive pelvic and PA adenopathy.

Metastatic, Non Small Cell Lung Cancer – further opinion

67-year-old with multiple co morbities: Heart, renal, vascular, hypertensive. His biopsy showed left lower lobe lung mass that was a TTF-1 Non small cell lung cancer- most likely an adenocarcinoma. Multiple small nodules < than 1cm were noted without certain etiology, together with “masses” in the upper abdomen and left arm. Recommended therapy includes single agent Vinorelbine.

Metastatic Heteroplasia of the Lung

70-year-old male underwent epileptic seizures. A brain CAT scan showed a space occupying lesion with surrounding edema in his left frontal lobe. A subsequent MRI examination enabled the demonstration of four separated lesions in his brain consistent with metastases. A total body CAT scan demonstrated a mass in the right lung. The diagnosis of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the lung was established by bronchoscopy and transbronchial biopsy. The patient was treated by brain irradiation.

Stage 4 Neuroblastoma

1.5-year-old male suffered from eye swelling. His MRI revealed expansive lesion of left lateral orbital wall origin, with compression on the lateral rectus muscle. Later he was hospitalized due to fever and vomiting in left orbital lesion, suspecting a metastatic neuroblastoma. His eye examination revealed exophthalmus of the eye with exophoria and light dysfunction of the lateral rectus. His biopsies were indicative of stroma-poor neuroblastoma.

Axonal and Demyelinative Sensorimotor Neuropathy

66-year-old male with a 6-year history of sensory symptoms in the feet and hands. He describes a sensation of cold and stinging in the feet; and numbness in the hands, especially at night. Nerve conduction and EMG demonstrated axonal and demyelinative sensorimotor neuropathy with neurogenic changes in muscles. Follow-up nerve conduction testing that was performed 2 years later showed similar findings.

Giant Cell Epulis (peripheral giant cell granuloma)

86-year-old female presented to the clinic due to rapid growing T-formation on the mandible body in the frontal section, covering the body supra- and sub-mandibular, and was referred to a surgical biopsy procedure. Soft tissue was removed surgically by cutting out, and this Tumor over growth of gingiva and mandible bone was diagnosed as Giant Cell Tumor of Soft tissues.

Vesical Neoformations in Glandular Cystic Cystitis

58-year-old male diagnosed with sigmoid colon diverticulosis. In the past (2000&2008) he underwent trans urethral resections of bladder lesions which were diagnosed to be glandular cystitis cystica. Follow up cystoscopy performed lately revealed two new strawberry like lesions close to the bladder neck. Urine cytology was negative for malignant cells, pelvic ultrasound demonstrated a thickened bladder. The patient was offered another resection surgery.

Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid with Multiple and Diffuse Nodular Secondarisms of the Pulmonary Parenchyma

78-year-old female with history of diabetes, and meningioma complicated by neurologic deficits following surgery, was diagnosed with progressive iodine-refractory metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Her initial work-up revealed lung metastasis. She underwent a right thyroidectomy and then left thyroidectomy and laryngectomy, and subsequently received I-131 on 8 occasions. She had a drop in thyroglobulin levels to the early treatments, but most recently, thyroglobulin has steadily increased.

End Stage Renal Disease

54-year-old obese male with end stage renal disease due to membranous nephropathy, has received 2 renal transplants in the past and is highly sensitized. He underwent coronary angiography for vessel CAD, and PTCAs and stanting were performed. His current treatment consists of multiple medications including mycophylate according to the instructions of his transplant nephrologist. His cardiologists sees no contraindication to transplantation.

Massive Portal and Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

47-year-old male presented with un-provoked portal and mesenteric vein thrombosis that caused persistent radiating pains of upper abdominal quadrants. The examinations found heterozygous factor II mutation, and family survey for the factor II mutation was recommended. The patient started anticoagulant therapy. In the expert's opinion, the main risk factors for portal vein thrombosis are: Prothrombotic disorder, abdominal inflammation, cirrhosis, cancer, abdominal intervention and abdominal infection.

Neuroroendocrine neoplasia with hepatic secondary lesions_2

39-year-old male was diagnosed to have a neuroendocrine tumour with synchronic liver metastases. The disease was treated with an etoposide-carboplatin combination, Interferon A, somatostatin analogue and Zebra fish egg derived dietary supplements. In early 2008, a tumour progression was noted in that the disease started to produce the epithelial tumour markers CEA and CA 19-9.

Possible Vitamin D/ Parathyroid Hormone Abnormality_1

51-year-old female with vitamin D deficiency and incompatibility between the PTH and vitamin D levels. She reports that as a child she had numerous cavities in her jaw, and her daughter also had multiple tooth fillings. She wonders whether the reason could be genetic abnormality.

 

Left frontotemporal craniolacunia

11-months-old male showed signs of tumefaction in the left frontotemporal region. An ultrasound showed a solid noncalcified neoformation, and a brain CAT scan showed a small solid lesion resulting in erosion of the cranial theca both in the external and internal table. Based on clinical status and tomodensitometric appearance, the diagnosis of suspected eosinophilic granuloma or hystiocytosis X was made, and a surgical curettage of the craniolacunia was recommended in order to comfirm the diagnosis.

MDS – Myelodysplastic Syndrome

74-year-old male with gradual pan-cytopenia with predominant thrombocytopenia underwent a bone marrow biopsy that confirmed the diagnosis of Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). He is currently in good general health except for slowly progressive weakness and being constantly tired. In the expert's opinion, there is no indication for therapy at this time, since the counts are satisfactory for every-day living. Nevertheless, the treating options are erythopoietin injections, lenalidomide, Vidaza or Dacogen therapy, or stem cell transplantation.

Operated breast cancer with metastases

A 55 years old female was diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast 7 years ago. The patient underwent a right quadrantectomy and axillary lymph nodes removal, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. 5 years ago, after diagnostic finding of reappearance of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast, the patient underwent right mastectomy and revisional surgery of axillary armpit, and another adjuvant chemotherapy. 

Chronic Pain in the Lower Rib Cage – Suspected Intercostal Neurinoma

67-year-old male began to complain of chronic pain in the left lower rib cage. The pain is stitch, ever-present, dull and localized at the level of his left last rib, and became slightly worse in the last 2 years. Recent image findings: MRI - "Ovalish hypoechogenic solid formation, Ultra sound - "Suspected intercostal neurinoma at ribs 10, 11 and 12.

Pulmonary heteroplasia_2

66-year-old female was diagnosed, following persistent cough, with non-operable tumor of her lung with satellite nodules, and chemotherapy was initiated (first Cisplatin and Gemcitabine, and then switched to Tarceva). Response evaluation following the fourth cycle of chemotherapy showed either stability or an initiation of tumor response, but bone scintigraphy that was performed 6 months later revealed an area of increased uptake in the left hemithorax which could be suggestive of a secondary bone lesion.

PANCYTOPENIA OF UNKNOWN PATHOGENESIS

 74-year-old female evaluated for pancytopenia of unknown etiology, which required blood transfusions. Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy showed a hypocellular bone marrow with trilineage maturation. The treatment include immunosuppressive agents and erythropoietin.

 

IgG Multiple Myeloma

57-year-old male who was found to have back pain and hyperglobulinemia approximately. Marrow biopsy was consistent with IgG myeloma. He was treated with steroids and local radiotherapy with improvement in symptoms and a modest reduction in the M-component. He received melphalan-based autologous stem cell transplantation, which was complicated by reversible respiratory failure. Unfortunately, he relapsed and was treated with bortezomib and steroids for 6 cycles followed by thalidomide. The disease has responded to therapy.

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), with kariotype del(11)q(11)

A 74 year-old male, that was diagnosed as suffering from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with kariotype del(11)q(11) by a bone marrow biopsy, following a gradual pancytopenia. The patient complains about slowly progressive weakness and being constantly tired.He was offered chemotherapy, but he declined this treatment because of fear that it would worsen his already severe weakness.

Renal Neoplasia of not yet Determined Nature

52-year-old male with no relevant past medical history. An ultrasound of his urinary system diagnosed a space occupying lesion in the left kidney. Further investigation with abdominal CT demonstrated a nonhomogenous solid mass with dimensions of 4X2.7cm located at the lateral aspect of the lower pole of the kidney. After administration of contrast media it enhances. The specialist determined “incidental diagnosis of left renal neoplasia" and recommended to carry out a lesion enucleoresection. Partial/ radical nephrectomy surgery was scheduled.

Symptomatic Pancytopenia

74-year-old male has suffered over six months from pancytopenia. The main problem has been the symptomatic anemia, which required blood transfusions. Bone marrow aspiration revealed some myelodysplasia, and immune therapy has been prescribed. The expert suggests possible differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and recommends to establish a definite diagnosis before discussing treatment.

Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma of Breast

51-year-old female underwent Lumpectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy for infiltrating duct carcinoma of her left breast. The tumor was completely excised and concluded as stage I. The estrogen and progesterone receptor status were optimal, and therefore the expert recommends hormone therapy. He also recommends to complete the ongoing adjuvant irradiation program, to complete staging procedures, and to undergo genetic counseling.

Pulmonary heteroplasia_3

66-year-old female was diagnosed, following persistent cough, with non-operable tumor of her lung with satellite nodules, and chemotherapy was initiated (first Cisplatin and Gemcitabine, and then switched to Tarceva). Response evaluation following the fourth cycle of chemotherapy showed either stability or an initiation of tumor response, but bone scintigraphy that was performed 6 months later revealed an area of increased uptake in the left hemithorax which could be suggestive of a secondary bone lesion.

 

Multirelapse Squamed Carcinoma of the Skin

75-year-old male with a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma resected from the right eyebrow in 2003. In 2006, the patient underwent resection of an ipsilateral squamous cell carcinoma in the parotid bed that was presumably a nodal metastasis. He then experienced local relapse treated with resection and adjuvant radiotherapy. There was recurrent disease involving the right cheek excised in 2008. In 2009, another recurrence led to resection with orbital exenteration. Pathology showed squamous cell carcinoma, with perineural invasion, and extension into the orbital muscles.

Autoimmune hepatitis/cholangitis in patient with Crohn’s disease.

18 years old male. 4 months ago the patient was hospitalized due to epigastric abdominal pain, lack of appetite and weight loss. He was diagnosed with Crohn’s disease.
Hepatic biopsy, that was performed during this hospitslization, showed evidence of an overlap syndrome picture (cholangitis/hepatitis). He was initially treated with Cortisone and Azathioprine.

PANCYTOPENIA OF UNKNOWN ETIOLOGY

74-year-old female evaluated for pancytopenia of unknown etiology, which required blood transfusions. Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy showed a hypocellular bone marrow with trilineage maturation. The treatment include immunosuppressive agents and erythropoietin.

Pulmonary Heteroplasia – additional opinion

66-year-old female was diagnosed, following persistent cough, with lung tumour with concomitant pulmonary nodules and a measurable enlargement of lymph nodes. FBS was positive for well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma and a needle biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma with associated neuroendocrine differentiation.

Respiratory Insufficiency with Tracheotomy_1

72-yaer-old female was hospitalized due to bronchopneumonia complicated by septic shock. Her complicated diagnosis was: acute respiratory insufficiency with recent results of right mediobasal bronchopneumonic foci with respiratory distress, Hypertensive hypertrophic heart disease, Renal insufficiency, Anemia, Drained left PNX, Tracheomalacia, and Gastritis, and various medical procedures were performed, including Tracheostomy.

Respiratory Insufficiency with Tracheotomy_2

72-year-old female recovered from protracted bronchopneumonia and sepsis that demanded mechanical ventilation via oral intubation and tracheostomy. She developed post tracheotomy tracheal stenosis and failed 2 attempts of Montgomery T-tube insertion.

 

Anaplastic Astrocytoma in the left temporal lobe

65-year-old male experienced loss of consciousness, and a CT scan showed a left temporal mass which was confirmed by MRI. The patient underwent Stereotacti biopsy of mass, and Histological examination gave a diagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma. He started chemoradiation with fotemustine (nitrosourea alkylating agent). Repeated MRI showed progression with mass effect, mild uncal herniation and enlarging ventricles. He has stable expressive aphasia and hemisyndrome, lethargy and decreased motivation. His treatment was switched from phenobarbital to levetiracetam.

 

Rectal Carcinoma, Gastric Carcinoma, Metastases.

52-year-old male was diagnosed in 2004 with a carcinoma of the lower rectum and underwent surgical anterior resection of the rectal tumor which was a well differentiated adenocarcinoma. In 2008 he underwent emergency operation for a perforated pyloric ulcer and then a radical resection of a gastric tumor which infiltrated the entire thickness of the gastric wall. It was a G3 diffuse type adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells, at pT3N2 stage.

Diffuse Intra-Axial expansive Lesion of the Enchephalic Trunk not surgically investigated_4

7-year-old boy with prodrome of right-sided and right face weakness, gait ataxia, and intermittent headaches. Head computed tomography demonstrated a tumor at the brainstem/posterior fossa, and then MRI confirmed a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (a typical brainstem glioma). Following initiation of dexamethasone (Decadron, steroid for vasogenic edema), the child has started experimental treatment with the medicine nimotuzumab to be followed with conventional radiotherapy.

Vitamin D Abnormality / Parathyroid Hormone Abnormality

51-year-old female with vitamin D deficiency among other medical problems: high blood pressure, episodes of transient syncope, and sleep apnea. In the expert's opinion frequent changes and discontinuations of drugs as well as big intervals between one dose to another, can be responsible for hypertensive crisis. Therefore the expert recommends to stop too frequent investigations , and instead focus on appropriate treatment, that should be combination of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker and diuretics.

Motor Neuron Disease – another opinion

72-year-old female developed progressive dysarthria and dysphagia. Her doctor describes her speech difficulty as “Spastic dysarthria with slow and nasal speech" and noticed decreased mobility in the tongue and palate. She underwent multiple investigations and started Rilutek. Since there is no biologic marker for ALS, the expert suggests further testing that is focused on trying to rule out other disorders and show diffuse lower motor neuron involvement

Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas

The expert shares broad information regarding Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas: categories, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, risks and outcomes, and qualifications for performing surgery on the pancreas.

 

Cerebral Atrophy

A 52 year old began having difficulties with balance. His problems evolved and he had been seen by neurologists providing clinical evidence for a cerebellar motor syndrome. The most recent examination showed ataxia, dysarthria, nystagmus, dysphagia and hyperreflexia. Although the disease has progressed the patient is not severely disabled at this time.