71-year-old female developed progressive dysarthria and dysphagia. Her doctor describes her speech difficulty as “Spastic dysarthria with slow and nasal speech" and noticed decreased mobility in the tongue and palate. She underwent multiple investigations and started Rilutek. The differential diagnosis of isolated swallowing and speaking difficulties include: Early motor neuron disease, Cranial neuropathies, Myopathies, Neuromuscular junction disorders and Neurodegenerative movement disorders.
72-year-old female developed progressive dysarthria and dysphagia. Her doctor describes her speech difficulty as “Spastic dysarthria with slow and nasal speech" and noticed decreased mobility in the tongue and palate. She underwent multiple investigations and started Rilutek. Since there is no biologic marker for ALS, the expert suggests further testing that is focused on trying to rule out other disorders and show diffuse lower motor neuron involvement
71-year-old female developed progressive dysarthria and dysphagia. She underwent multiple investigations and started Rilutek. Her EMG study does not meet published criteria for the electrophysiologic diagnosis of motor neuron disease. In the expert's opinion, a definite diagnosis is not possible at the present time, and there would be utility in repeating clinical and electrophysiologic testing. The expert also recommends to perform pulmonary function testing.
78-year-old female with history of diabetes, and meningioma complicated by neurologic deficits following surgery, was diagnosed with progressive iodine-refractory metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Her initial work-up revealed lung metastasis. She underwent a right thyroidectomy and then left thyroidectomy and laryngectomy, and subsequently received I-131 on 8 occasions. She had a drop in thyroglobulin levels to the early treatments, but most recently, thyroglobulin has steadily increased.
7-year-old boy with prodrome of right-sided and right face weakness, gait ataxia, and intermittent headaches. Head computed tomography demonstrated a tumor at the brainstem/posterior fossa, and then MRI confirmed a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (a typical brainstem glioma). Following initiation of dexamethasone (Decadron, steroid for vasogenic edema), the child has started experimental treatment with the medicine nimotuzumab to be followed with conventional radiotherapy.
10 months old, female. After normal birth (at the 40th week of pregnancy) and neonatal period, started to suffer from gastroesophageal reflux and recurrent respiratory infections, at times with broncospasm. In addition, psychomotor retardation was found and the young patient was assessed by a neurologist. The tests run (EMG and genetics for SMA) pointed to the diagnosis of Spinal Amyotrophy.
After hospitalization due to catarrhal bronchitis, the patient was discharged in good general conditions with recomendations for respiratory physiotherapy and neurological rehabilitation.