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Chronic Pain in the Lower Rib Cage – Suspected Intercostal Neurinoma

67-year-old male began to complain of chronic pain in the left lower rib cage. The pain is stitch, ever-present, dull and localized at the level of his left last rib, and became slightly worse in the last 2 years. Recent image findings: MRI - "Ovalish hypoechogenic solid formation, Ultra sound - "Suspected intercostal neurinoma at ribs 10, 11 and 12.

Facial pain after thyroidectomy

A 47 years old female underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, followed by treatment with radioactive Iodine (I131).
Since then, the patient has been suffering from severe facial pain (left>right), dry mouth and recurrent local infections. She was diagnosed with bilateral sialadenitis, and was repeatedly treated with endoscopy and repeat washing. Medical treatment for neurogenic pain wasn't helpfull, as well as visits to different salivary gland specialists.

Left lumbosciatic pain from double disc protrusion

35-year-old female experienced an episode of lower back pain. Her doctor prescribed injections with Orudis, followed by further treatment with Voltaren. The treatment resulted in a simple remission of pain, that then re-appear at the same intensity as initially. The doctor established a new treatment that consisted of Indoxen and Bentelan. The patient experienced a remission of symptoms until even more intense lumbar pain returned spreading to the left leg. She recieved Voltaren, Muscoril, and Indoxen. Lumbar-sacral NMR showed disc central protrusion.

Low back pain due to spondylosis and degenerative disc disease

35 years old male. 3 years ago an episode of lumbar pain. After an X-ray test and lumbar spine MNR a disc herniation was diagnosed. Later on, disorders showed up sporadically, and 15 days ago, as a result of backache recurrence, the patient decided to carry out diagnostic deepening performing a new lumbosacral magnetic resonance and an electromyographic examination.

Neuropathic Pain with Neuralgic Features

70-year-old female with a history of diabetes mellitus began experiencing pain in the legs. In the last few months the pain localized in her inner thighs. It is burning in nature, with sudden intense attacks, and is consistent with neuropathic pain with neuralgic features. The expert suggests possible diagnosis, further investigation and symptomatic treatment. In his opinion, it is likely that the cause of the symptoms is peripheral neuropathy or radiculopathy.

Suspected Fibromyalgia

27-year-old female with a diagnosis of suspected fibromyalgia. Her history includes long standing widespread musculo – skeletal pain connected to a feeling of general slight illness, as well as a series of accompanying symptoms: frequent migraines, cervicalgia, stomach disorders, chest pain and tachycardia . Therefore, she has carried out various follow-ups that each time detected a different problem for which the relevant therapy was set out.

Left lumbosciatic pain from L4-L5 and L5-S1 annular protrusion

The patient experienced an episode of lower back pain while carrying home shopping bags. Her family doctor diagnosed a “left lumbosciatic pain” and prescribed injections with vials of Orudis and Voltaren. The treatment resulted in temporary remission, therefore the patient started a new treatment regiment of Indoxen and Bentelan + acupuncture treatment which was partially beneficial.

Spinal pathology

75-year-old male with multiple complaints related to both his lumbar and cervical spine. He complains of low back pain, cramping and numbness in his thigh muscles, radiating left leg pain to his toes, as well as unsteady gait. He experiences numbness in his shoulders, arms and hands that gets worse over the day. He had a C4-5 fusion and a lumbar procedure at L4-5. The cervical MTI showed degenerative disease worse at C6-7 where there is moderate central and foraminal stenosis.

Back Pain with Partial Sensory Leg Anesthesia

25-year-old male had an outbreak of sharp pain in the loin, and afterwards complained of partial sensory anesthesia in his leg. He has been given prescribed treatment that included blockades, magnetotherapy, and ultrasound massage with hydrocortison. He experienced back pain for the first time after lifting a heavy thing, and got a pain relief after taking a pain-killer and applying Finalgon ointment. After few months the pain reoccurred. The patient then got a MRT test and was prescribed Finalgon and Milgamma pills, but developed an allergy towards Milgamma.

Chronic pain of undetermined origin

67-year-old male suffering a constant pain at the bottom of the lower left rib cage for the last two years. The pain is described as not being extreme nor affected by breathing; it is dull and always present. Various imaging scans were unremarkable although diffuse degenerative disk spinal abnormalities were noted.

Post Traumatic Double Pelvic Fracture

73-year-old female with history of backache and diagnosis of Adult Scoliosis, fell down getting a back trauma at the level of the left hip and inferior limb. After severe symptomatic worsening X-ray examination was performed. The findings were: asymmetric pelvis, bilateral coxarthrosis, coarse arthrosic and osteophytosic manifestations, discopathies and disc arthrosis. The prescribed therapy included Piroxicam, Tioside, Depalgos, and low-molecular-weight-heparin therapy that was later replaced by NSAIDs by injection

Chronic talalgia of undetermined nature

A 58 years old male. 4 years ago the patient was hospitalized due to acute thrombosis of the right femoral-iliac axis. The patient was treated succesfully with locoregional intra-arterial fibrinolytic therapy. A follow-up arteriography, revealed sub-occlusion of the common iliac, occlusion of the right superficial femoral artery in Hunter’s canal. PTA + stent of the iliac was carried out with excellent final angiographic result.

Pain in the left knee

25-year-old male suffers from pain in his left knee that shows up after carrying out a limited physical activity. The length and the importance of the pain are proportional to the intensity of the physical activity, the pain is gradual, and is linked to the movement of the knee joint. Knee MRN showed misalignment of the femur and kneecap with the patella, diffuse superficial edema of the kneecap cartilage, and signs of diffuse tendinopathy. In the expert's opinion, the patient suffers from patello-femoral knee pain due to patellar malalignment or patellar maltracking.

Right foot pain

38-year-old female started to suffer pain in her right foot on without a notable trauma. She was examined by several orthopeadic doctors and she got different opinions. The first diagnosed medium sprain of right foot and slight tumefaction on forefoot, and suggested her paracetamol administration that was with no benefit. The second specialist diagnosed sesamoiditis and right plantar fasciitis with 3rd degree cavus-valgus feet and recommended Depomedrol + Lidocaine, Pennsaid drops and NSAIDs. As part of the examinations she underwent an MR with and without Gadolinium.

Right Knee Pain

41-year-old male that in the past decade had suffered 2-3 times a year from bilateral knee pain which resolved spontaneously. Last year he had episodes of thumb pain that had lasted for several weeks and had affected grasp movements. The patient had responded to NSAID treatment for 2 weeks. MRI of the right knee showed Mild endoarticular effusion in the sub-quadriceps recess, chondropathy of the femoropatellar joint and lesion of the medial meniscus.

Recurrent episodes of dysuria in lower urinary tract

54-year-old male that Since the age of 35 years seeks medical help for Lower urinary tract symptoms mainly of irritative nature. Urological, Neurological, Orthopedic & Psychiatric aspects of his symptoms were evaluated. The patient was treated with a variety of drugs with marginal benefit.

Back Pain with Partial Sensory Leg Anesthesia – additional opinion

25-year-old male had an outbreak of sharp pain in the loin, and afterwards complained of partial sensory anesthesia in his leg. He has been given prescribed treatment that included blockades, magnetotherapy, and ultrasound massage with hydrocortison. He experienced back pain for the first time after lifting a heavy thing, and got a pain relief after taking a pain-killer and applying Finalgon ointment. After few months the pain reoccurred. The patient then got a MRT test and was prescribed Finalgon and Milgamma pills, but developed an allergy towards Milgamma.

Pathology of the Wrist and Right Hand

47-year-old male has injured his right wrist while playing football 30 years ago. He always had some manageable pain while playing tennis. The pain increased during the last 12 months, and following this, MRI studies were performed. They revealed wrist Diastasis between scaphoid and semilunar bone in agreement with a lesion of the scapholunate ligament and pronounced radioscaphoid arthrotic manifestations. In the expert's opinion, the patient is suffering from post traumatic osteoarthritis of radio-carpal joint brought upon by ligamentous injuries due to trauma.

Autoimmune hepatitis/cholangitis in patient with Crohn’s disease.

18 years old male. 4 months ago the patient was hospitalized due to epigastric abdominal pain, lack of appetite and weight loss. He was diagnosed with Crohn’s disease.
Hepatic biopsy, that was performed during this hospitslization, showed evidence of an overlap syndrome picture (cholangitis/hepatitis). He was initially treated with Cortisone and Azathioprine.

Acquired deformity of left foot in Parkinson’s Disease
73-year-old male with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) since 2001. The cause for this consultation is a problem in the left foot that appeared in 2005 and has worsened since. The diagnosis was "a serious pronated flat foot transverse to the left” causing pain radiating up to the thigh and hip and causing recurrent falls with serious injury.
Axonal and Demyelinative Sensorimotor Neuropathy

66-year-old male with a 6-year history of sensory symptoms in the feet and hands. He describes a sensation of cold and stinging in the feet; and numbness in the hands, especially at night. Nerve conduction and EMG demonstrated axonal and demyelinative sensorimotor neuropathy with neurogenic changes in muscles. Follow-up nerve conduction testing that was performed 2 years later showed similar findings.

Wrist and Right Hand Pathology – additional opinion

47-year-old male has injured his right wrist while playing football 30 years ago. He always had some manageable pain while playing tennis. The pain increased during the last 12 months. The wrist CT scan that the expert recommended revealed diastasis between scaphoid and semilunar bone, palmar dislocation, dorsal intercalated segmental instability (DISI), marked radio-scaphoid arthritis and reactive sclerosis of the subchondral bone. This findings conformed the previous diagnosis of post traumatic osteoarthritis of radio-carpal joint brought upon by ligamentous injuries due to trauma.

Spinal pathology – additional opinion

75-year-old male with multiple complaints related to both his lumbar and cervical spine. He complains of low back pain, cramping and numbness in his thigh muscles, radiating left leg pain to his toes, as well as unsteady gait. He experiences numbness in his shoulders, arms and hands that gets worse over the day. He had a C4-5 fusion and a lumbar procedure at L4-5. The cervical MTI showed degenerative disease worse at C6-7 where there is moderate central and foraminal stenosis.

Herniated Disc L4-L5

58-year-old female diagnosed with herniated discs at vertebrae L4-L5. MR scans present signs of degeneration in L4-5, mild degenerative scoliosis, secondary narrowing of the canal and of disc space in L5-S1 level, central and left disc herniation at L4-5 level, and swelling of L4 root.

Juvenile Arthritis with Systemic Onset (Stills Disease) – Additional Opinion

60-year-old patient was diagnosed with Still's disease. He was treated with high doses of corticosteroids (methylprednisolone, 110 mg daily). The dose was gradually lowered to 4 mg daily. In the last 2 years he had two exacerbations of the disease which were successfully treated by the increased dose of methylprednisolone. The expert recommends different complementary treatments that can be helpful to reduce pain , other symptoms and inflammation, reduce the dose of the drugs needed to control the disease, and improve quality of life.

Left cervicobrachialgia following cervical discectomy

43-year-old male suffered of cervical disc herniation, and therefore C5-6 and C6-7 discectomy and fusion were done. About one year later he experienced acute sciatica followed by hot pricking sensation in the arm and neck. MRI showed far lateral bulge of L3-4 on the left and small disc bulge on C4-5, and a larger C5-6 disc herniation. Neurological examination disclosed C6-C7 radiculopathy on the left, minimal weakness of biceps and triceps muscles and reduced biceps reflex. EMG and physical examination were consistent with bilateral radiculopathy, attributed to small disc herniation.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

41 year-old male was recently diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis (MS) after episodes of leg and shoulder weakness and parasthesis. Lately he experiences dizziness. His MRI showed several demyelinating lesions, other ancillary tests showed demyelinating damage to the auditory and visual pathway. Currently he has no functional or sensorial deficiencies. He was offered several immunomodulatory treatment options: Rebif, Betaferon and Copaxone, and asks about their pros, cons and complications, and about the differential diagnosis.

Post-trauma tendinopathy of left shoulder

44-year-old male that sustained a contusion to his left shoulder while falling at his home. Following the fall he suffered severe pain. An ultrasound to the shoulder was interpreted as showing some changes in the ACJ and peritendinitis of the biceps brachi. The orthopedic surgeon that examined the patient about 2 weeks post injury had the impression of tendinopathy and requested an MRI that had indicated changes in signals in the ACJ and superior impingement of the supraspinatus and peritendinitis of the biceps. On the basis of these findings an arthroscopy was suggested.

Massive Portal and Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

47-year-old male presented with un-provoked portal and mesenteric vein thrombosis that caused persistent radiating pains of upper abdominal quadrants. The examinations found heterozygous factor II mutation, and family survey for the factor II mutation was recommended. The patient started anticoagulant therapy. In the expert's opinion, the main risk factors for portal vein thrombosis are: Prothrombotic disorder, abdominal inflammation, cirrhosis, cancer, abdominal intervention and abdominal infection.

Left Knee Arthralgia

65-year-old female that suffers from pain in the left knee underwent examinations that showed femoral-tibial arthrotic manifestations, external degenerative meniscal tear and moderate joint effusion. A diagnosis of external degenerative meniscal tear was established. Further medical tests showed marked degeneration of the meniscal fibrocartilage, diffuse femoral-tibial arthrotic abnormalities, subchondral cysts and edema of the spongious bone, as well as rarefaction of the cartilage matrix, and manifestations of chondropathy.

Herniated Disc of the Lumbosacral Rachis

72-year old male experiencing lower limb pain with exacerbation after physical exercise. Radiological findings suggest chronic lateral recess stenosis. The recommended treatment is root block injections and surgical decompression.

Prostatic pathology

46-year-old-male with symptoms of burning sensation during miction, soreness in perineal region when in seated position and pollakiuria was diagnosed with Prostatic pathology – "prostatodynia", after prostate calcifications and retention microcysts were observed in echography. In the expert's opinion it is inaccurate to localize this symptoms anatomically to the prostate, and the exact diagnosis is Painful Bladder Syndrome.

Spinal column pathology - additional opinion

39-year-old male experienced in 1994 intense lower back pain after lifting weights, with spontaneous resolution. In 2006, he again experienced lower back pain radiating into both thighs. A lumbar MRI showed degenerative changes and EMG test showed L5 nerve root irritation. His physical examination demonstrated increased reflexes and a concern for cervical stenosis was entertained. Further cervical MRI and lumbar studies showed arthritic changes, and the thoracic MRI showed evidence of spinal cord compression. The surgeon suggested posterior thoracic laminectomy.

Post traumatic pain in knee

A 37 years old female suffered from multiple traumas caused by road accident with admittance to emergency room- multiple contusions, cervicalgia(due to whiplash) and contusion-laceration injury to left knee. An MRI scan of the knee was performed two months later (MRI findings are attached below) and the patient was examined by a specialist who gave a diagnosis of medial meniscal tear and femur-kneecap pain in the left knee. A broken medial meniscus of the left knee diagnosis should lead to an arthroscopic operation.

Multiple myeloma with renal involvement, bone lesions and Neuropathy

71-year-old-male had been diagnosed as having multiple myeloma (MM), apparently of the IgA-Lambda type, with renal involvement. The disease course is characterized by "ups and downs responding to anti-MM therapy. During the disease course, several problems and complications developed: Renal failure, Bone lesions and Neuropathy.

Peyronie’s Disease - Penile Disease

42-year-old male patient complained of penile pain. Physical examination and imaging studies were compatible with the diagnosis of Peyronie's disease. Cialis 20 mg was given in order to perform "vascular exercise" that should prepare him for ESWL treatment to break the plaques when the condition stabilizes.

Neuroroendocrine neoplasia with hepatic secondary lesions

39-year old male was diagnosed with metastases of Neuroendocrine tumor to the liver, presumably from pancreatic origin, suffered from significant weight loss. The administered treatments include Chemotherapy, Roferon A, Statins and Dietary supplements.

Bilateral Pronatory Syndrome Greater in the right foot – additional opinion

10-year-old female with pain and swelling of the right foot was diagnosed bilateral pronatory syndrome. The specialist recommended foot surgery for the lengthening of the Achilles tendon and application of retrograde endorthesis screw. The expert disagrees with the necessity of this procedure, and suggests differential diagnosis and conservative treatment that includes pain killers, soft shoes with soft insoles inside and mild elevation of the medial longitudinal arch of the feet.

Diffuse Intra-Axial expansive Lesion of the Enchephalic Trunk not surgically investigated _3

7-year-old boy was diagnosed with diffused intra-axial brainstem expansive lesion. The spine MRI scan indicates spread of the patient's tumor down along the spinal cord, in spite of having reduced at the brainstem. The expert agrees that radiation to the spine that the child started receiving is appropriate, and recommends that the child resume chemotherapy to cover the tumor more globally.

Acute Infectious Mononucleosis with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)

Patient with clinical and laboratory picture compatible with acute infectious mononucleosis with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) receives from the expert wide information regarding the virus, the symptoms and clinical course, the needed follow-up tests etc.

Neuroroendocrine neoplasia with hepatic secondary lesions_2

39-year-old male was diagnosed to have a neuroendocrine tumour with synchronic liver metastases. The disease was treated with an etoposide-carboplatin combination, Interferon A, somatostatin analogue and Zebra fish egg derived dietary supplements. In early 2008, a tumour progression was noted in that the disease started to produce the epithelial tumour markers CEA and CA 19-9.

Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas

The expert shares broad information regarding Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas: categories, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, risks and outcomes, and qualifications for performing surgery on the pancreas.

 

Diffuse Intra-Axial expansive Lesion of the Enchephalic Trunk not surgically investigated_4

7-year-old boy with prodrome of right-sided and right face weakness, gait ataxia, and intermittent headaches. Head computed tomography demonstrated a tumor at the brainstem/posterior fossa, and then MRI confirmed a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (a typical brainstem glioma). Following initiation of dexamethasone (Decadron, steroid for vasogenic edema), the child has started experimental treatment with the medicine nimotuzumab to be followed with conventional radiotherapy.

Post traumatic shoulder luxation

31 years old healthy man, a month ago, during a soccer match, had a trauma of the right shoulder and was diagnosed with right glenohumeral luxation.
The Emergency Room orthopedist reduced luxation, and during the first days of the event, the patient treated pain, of modest importance and bearable. At present, the day pain has completely disappeared reappearing a bit at night and affecting mainly the forearm.

Right Post-Traumatic Gonalgia

55-year-old male diagnosed with Right side gonalgia due to degenerative meniscopathy. The expert suggests anti-inflammatory medications, physiotherapy and modified daily activity. Arthroscopy should be considered only in case of no symptomatic improvement.

Asthenic-dispeptic syndrome post laparoscopic cholecystectomy

48-year-old male underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis. During post-surgery he developed intense abdominal colics and a situation of hepatitis, probably from medicines as the tests carried out. Performed tests revealed changes of haematic values related to the hepato-renal function. MR-cholangiography showed cystic formation in the right lobe of the liver, and tumor markers that gave evidence of an increase of alpha-fetoprotein which should be monitored.

Cervical myelopathy

Female patient suffered an episode of sudden shooting pains in her hands while swimming. Since this episode, there has been a progressive improvement. However, the patient still suffers from hypersensitivity in her arms, together with hyperesthesia manifesting predominantly in her hands. For 3 years, the patient has suffered from paresthesia and burning sensations in her arms. Her MRI found marked degenerative differences with spinal narrowing and protruding discs causing pressure on the spinal cord. Spinal cord irregularities found at C5-C6 level.

Hypoesthesia of the Lower Limb

Male patient had twist injury of his knee with tear of the ACL and was operated. After the surgery he suffered acute lumbalgia. Twelve days later he was re-admitted for knee effusion and elevated body temperature, and arthrolysis and joint washing were performed. Following the procedure he complained of hypoesthesia of the proximal lower left limb and knee. EMG reveled L4 and S1 root damage, and MRI showed reduced lumbar lordosis and different disc lesions. In case of compression neuropathy (tourniquet), the expert recommends symptomatic only treatment.

Right and left lateral tibiotarsal instability

A 50 years old male with generalized ligamentous laxity and long history of distortions (Sprains) of the ankles. On the right ankle the incidence and severity of the sprains had increased significantly in recent months. On MRI imaging of both ankles: in the right ankle the lateral stabilizing ligaments are damaged and incongruent. On the left ankle the picture is similar with an old fracture of the tip of the medial malleolus which is not united, but not significantly displaced. Right ankle instability was diagnosed and  “Brodstrum“ type operation on right ankle has been suggested.

Metastatic, Non Small Cell Lung Cancer – further opinion

67-year-old with multiple co morbities: Heart, renal, vascular, hypertensive. His biopsy showed left lower lobe lung mass that was a TTF-1 Non small cell lung cancer- most likely an adenocarcinoma. Multiple small nodules < than 1cm were noted without certain etiology, together with “masses” in the upper abdomen and left arm. Recommended therapy includes single agent Vinorelbine.

Metastatic, Non Small Cell Lung Cancer

67-year-old with multiple co morbities: Heart, renal, vascular, hypertensive. His biopsy showed left lower lobe lung mass that was a TTF-1 Non small cell lung cancer- most likely an adenocarcinoma. Multiple small nodules < than 1cm were noted without certain etiology, together with “masses” in the upper abdomen and left arm. Recommended therapy includes single agent Vinorelbine.

Cervical Disk Hernia_1

62-year-old male complained about sensation of pins and needles in the fingers accompanied by pain and feeling of pressure in the toes. The patient underwent CT and MRT of the cervical spine and conduction studies that showed signs of severe chronic neuropathy, Lordosis, disc hernias with pressure on the dural sac and narrowing of the canal together with segment myelopathy and spinal stenosis. In light of the weakness of the muscles in the patient's right hand, the expert recommendes a surgical solution.

Ischemic Heart Disease

A very physically active 49-year-old male with a history of labile hypertension and hypercholesterolemia with an LDL cholesterol of 126 mg%. He underwent an exercise stress test which revealed reversible inferoseptal ischemia at a peak heart rate of 171 bpm and peak blood pressure of 195/85. In the expert's opinion, the results suggest that the patient has silent myocardial ischemia and may be at risk for sudden cardiac death, especially in light of the marked exertional level of activity.

Long-term results of mandibular bone grafting operations

48-year-old male who had undergone multiple surgical attempts to augment mandibular bone for implant placement ('pins'). The patient received the opinion of a spesialist who spotted severe atrophy in the right mandibular posterolateral area. He reported on the condition of the mucosa with high insertion of frenii in the level of the alveolar ridge. Also the report related to occlusion problem and temporo mandibular dysfunction. In 2007, the patient received a report following a neurophysiological examination of the masseter muscle showing a change in sensation from the lower alveolus.

Demyelinizing Disease

47-year-old female with a diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis ,who suffers from progressive tetraparesis, more pronounced in the lower extremities. Her treatment included mitoxantrone and Interferon-beta treatment, both were discontinued because of side effects. Her movement difficulties, due to the left lower limb rigidity, are increasing progressively.

Multiple sclerosis in remission under Avonex treatment

A 23 year old female was diagnosed 7 years ago with multiple sclerosis. The patient had 4 acute attacks 7 years ago, and since then she has been treated by Avonex. The patient had no attacks since then, feel healthy and lead a normal healthy life as a busy university student. She enjoys sports several times a week, and there are no problems regarding her physical and mental function. Neurologically, the only reminiscence of her illness is a positive Babinsky sign in the left leg and a temporal blindness in the left eye.

Symptomatic Pancytopenia- Additional opinion

74-year-old male suffers from pancytopenia and symptomatic anemia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed some myelodysplasia, and the patient started immune therapy. He continues to require repeated blood transfusions. The expert recommends to complete the diagnostic workup. If no other disease is diagnosed than it can be assumed that the patient carries the diagnosis of MDS hypoplastic type.

Cervical Disk Hernia_3

62-year-old male with extremity radiculopathy and weakness in intrinsic muscles. His diagnosis include stenosis (cervical spine C3-C7), rediculitis, degenerative disc disease and cervical spondylosis with possible myelopathy. Given the patient's age and the appearance of the MRI scan showing significant multilevel stenosis, the expert recommends surgical intervention.

 

Multiple Sclerosis

23-year-old female had episodes of hemiparesis, dysmetria and parenthesis underwent MRI that showed a demyelization process. After she was hospitalized with Left Retro-Bulbar Optic Neuritis, she started treatment with weekly injections of AVONEX (Interferon beta-1a). Now she is in good general health and asks about stopping the Anovex treatment. The expert answers that she shouldn't stop the treatment , because the purpose of the medications is to prevent exacerbations, that may leave neurologic residual dysfunction.

Juvenile Arthritis with Systemic Onset (Stills Disease)

50-year-old male was diagnosed with Juvenile arthritis with systemic onset (Stills disease) after having symptoms of high fever, rashes and pain. He was treated with high doses of corticosteroids, but had two exacerbations in the last 2 years. In the current time he suffers of swelling of knee joints and hand joints, and occasionally a feeling of burning feet or cold feet. In the expert's opinion, the clinical description fit well with the diagnosis of adult onset systemic arthritis which manifestations are similar to the juvenile systemic arthritis.

Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney

49-year-old male was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma and underwent left radical nephrectomy. The expert recommended either close observation every few months or participating in an adjuvant vaccine trial or monoclonal antibody therapy trial.

Severe Osteoporosis and Multiple Vertebral Fractures

82-year-old female with severe osteoporosis manifests with vertebral fractures. During treatment with Risedronate, she suffered another fracture. In the expert's opinion, taking into account the patient's age, the presence of fractures and low BMD, the patient is at a very high risk to develop a recurrent fracture so treatment must be given. The expert recommends to rule out secondary causes for osteoporosis such as vitamin D deficiency, to keep a healthy as possible way of life, and change the treatment with Risedronate to Forteo (Teriparatide).

Multiple Myeloma (MM) and Cardiomyopathy

51-year-old-male, complained of low back pain and has been diagnosed as having multiple myeloma (MM), light chain disease of the lambda type. His past medical history is remarkable for a cardiac disease. The expert believes it is cardiomyopathy, which can be amyloidotic (related to the MM) or hypertensive-atherosclerotic, or combined. The patient received anti-MM induction type of treatment (VTD combination), followed by high-dose cyclophosphamide (HDC) and autologous stem cell transplantation. The patient's low platelet count is of concern.

Symptomatic Pancytopenia

74-year-old male has suffered over six months from pancytopenia. The main problem has been the symptomatic anemia, which required blood transfusions. Bone marrow aspiration revealed some myelodysplasia, and immune therapy has been prescribed. The expert suggests possible differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and recommends to establish a definite diagnosis before discussing treatment.

Cervical Dystonia

47-year-old female with a 4-year history of cervical dystonia. She has been treated with botulinum toxin injections which were ineffective for her. In the expert's opinion, the success of Botulinum toxin in cervical dystonia depends on a thorough clinical assessment, exact targeting of the chosen muscles, and adequate doses of toxin injected. The expert also suggests additional or alternative treatment strategies: medical treatment by different oral drugs, or deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus interna.

 

Post infectious hypothyroidism

35-year-old female felt unusual tiredness a few months after giving birth, she gained weight and felt pain all over her body, paresthesias in her hands, and loss of energy. Examination revealed diffusely enlarged thyroid gland, the patient was clinically hypothyroid, and levothyroxine was prescribed. In the expert's opinion, the high TSH and low levels of T3 and T4 suggests the patient most likely suffers from Hashimotos thyroiditis and replacement with thyroid hormone can be a solution for her condition.

Guillain-Barré Syndrome / Acute Myeloradiculoneuritis

45-year-old male who presented with acute onset of flaccid paraparesis more pronounced on the left, sensation of current shocks in both legs and sensory level from the umbilicus downwards. The symptoms have reached their pick within less than a day. On examination the left lower limb was plegic and the right lower limb was partially weak. EMG was interpreted as demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy. MRI showed hyperintense signals at the dorsal terminal segment of the marrow consistent with myelitis.

Acute Infectious Mononucleosis with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) – further opinion

Patient with clinical and laboratory picture compatible with acute infectious mononucleosis with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). Although he still feels weak, his condition is slowly improving. There is a gradual disappearance of the fever episodes and rash, in parallel with gradual normalization of the liver enzymes results, and disappearance of atypical lymphocytes. The reactivation of Herpes labialis can be explained by the stress involved in the EBV infection or the Cortisone treatment.

Diffuse Intra-Axial expansive Lesion of the Enchephalic Trunk not surgically investigated _2

7-year-old boy was diagnosed with diffused intra-axial brainstem expansive lesion. He underwent radiation therapy but his physical condition is worrisome. His relatives ask the expert's opinion about experimental therapy consists of combination Antineoplaston and radiation therapy for the treatment of gliomas in children, that is now in clinical trial. The expert doesn't recommend it.

Cluster headache

A 40 years old female has been suffering from cluster headache for the last 20 years. For the last 1.5 years it has been transformed from an episodic form to a chronic one. The patient reports an episodes of vertigo, for which she carried out otorhinolaryngology examination and brain NMR. On NMR was detected a periventricular lesion of about 1.2 cm, without mass effect. This lesion was probably present also 4 years ago, when the patient underwent another NMR.

Metastatic non small cell lung Cancer

67 year old male, previously a heavy smoker, suffering for 2 months from weakness, diminished appetite and weight loss. Tests showed a mass in right arm, possibly attached to muscle, and tenderness in right ribs. Chest CT showed a mass in LLL, lung foci, suspected secondary spread and masses in upper abdomen. CT guided biopsy from right lung mass was consistent with non small cell carcinoma with extensive necrosis. SPECT bone scan showed many focal findings in the vertebrae L,D2,7, most of the ribs bilaterally and in the limbs- suspected for secondary pathology.

Valvular Heart Disease in Dissection of the Ascendant Aorta and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

72-year-old male with a diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse and chronic severe mitral regurgitation, aortic root and ascending aorta dilatation and patent foramen ovale. On 06/2008 he had dissection of the descending aorta. The clinical course has been characterized by hemodynamic stability and the vascular surgeon decided on conservative treatment and follow–up by thoracic CT.

Anemia due to blood loss in obscure intestinal bleeding

43 years old patient without any notable pathologies in anamnesis. After two episodes of severe hematochezia the patient underwent EGD, Colonoscopy, digestive system X-rays with contrast medium and capsule endoscopy camera (digestive system micro camera) without any pathological evidences

Stage IV Melanoma

26-year-old patient was diagnosed with stage 4 melanoma with massive metastatic spreading around the lymph node, and underwent surgical treatment: radical lymphoadenectomy of the right armpit, splenectomy, and resection of two subcutaneous lesions. Chemotherapy is also planned.

Well differentiated mixed acinar and bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma of the lung

An occasion chest X-ray of a 74-year-old female revealed a thickening in her left lung, and the tumor was latter typified as non-small cell lung cancer. Her staging chest CAT scan was consistent with a primary tumor in the lingular sub-segment together with millimetric parenchymal nodules suspected as secondary. She underwent a lingular segmental resection of the left lung. The histological report described a mixed acinar and non-mucinous bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma of the lung.

Hypertensive Patient with mostly uncontrolled Blood Pressure

A known hypertensive female patient whose blood pressure is mostly uncontrolled. The expert recommends to focus on appropriate treatment which should include fixed combination of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker and diuretics together with 24 hour blood pressure monitoring. The expert emphasize that frequent changes, discontinuations of drugs or big intervals between one dose to another can be responsible for hypertensive crisis.

Chronic Atrial Fibrillation in Patient with Prior Hemoptoic Episodes in Bilateral Bronchiectases

74-year-old female suffers from recurrent episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) and has been recommended oral anti-coagulant therapy with warfarin (Coumadin). She has mitral regurgitation, and on the other hand was diagnosed as suffering from congenital bronchiectasis with several episodes of significant bleeding (hemoptysis). Following these hemoptoic episodes she underwent series of diagnostic as well as therapeutic pulmonary intervention (bronchoscopy, angiography, embolization).

Vitamin D Abnormality / Parathyroid Hormone Abnormality

51-year-old female with vitamin D deficiency among other medical problems: high blood pressure, episodes of transient syncope, and sleep apnea. In the expert's opinion frequent changes and discontinuations of drugs as well as big intervals between one dose to another, can be responsible for hypertensive crisis. Therefore the expert recommends to stop too frequent investigations , and instead focus on appropriate treatment, that should be combination of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker and diuretics.

Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma of Breast – additional opinion

51-year-old female was diagnosed with stage I, Grade I infiltrating duct carcinoma of the breast. Estrogen receptors were highly positive and Progesterone receptors negative. Based on these findings the expert advises that she receive adjuvant radiotherapy and hormonotherapy. The adjuvant hormonotherapy consist of initial treatment by Tamoxifen for 2 years, thereafter switched to an Aromatase Inhibitor. The expert also informs the patient about potential side effects of Tamoxifen treatment, which are not frequent and generally mild.

Portosystemic Encephalopathy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Adult male with a history of hepatitis C, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and hepatocellular carcinoma. Patient treated for NHL with CHOP-R 4 years ago. However, post-treatment, he had continued presumed bone marrow suppression. He was diagnosed 2 years later with HCC and underwent TACE with good effect. Since the TACE, the patient has had persistent and worsening hepatic dysfunction with portal hypertension and ascites. Recently, the patient developed encephalopathy and was treated, as described below, with fast return to consciousness.

Multirelapse Squamed Carcinoma of the Skin

75-year-old male with a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma resected from the right eyebrow in 2003. In 2006, the patient underwent resection of an ipsilateral squamous cell carcinoma in the parotid bed that was presumably a nodal metastasis. He then experienced local relapse treated with resection and adjuvant radiotherapy. There was recurrent disease involving the right cheek excised in 2008. In 2009, another recurrence led to resection with orbital exenteration. Pathology showed squamous cell carcinoma, with perineural invasion, and extension into the orbital muscles.

Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid with Multiple and Diffuse Nodular Secondarisms of the Pulmonary Parenchyma

78-year-old female with history of diabetes, and meningioma complicated by neurologic deficits following surgery, was diagnosed with progressive iodine-refractory metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Her initial work-up revealed lung metastasis. She underwent a right thyroidectomy and then left thyroidectomy and laryngectomy, and subsequently received I-131 on 8 occasions. She had a drop in thyroglobulin levels to the early treatments, but most recently, thyroglobulin has steadily increased.

Pulmonary heteroplasia

66-year-old female was diagnosed with lung tumour within the right hemithorax with concomitant pulmonary nodules and a measurable enlargement of lymph nodes. FBS was positive for well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma and a needle biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma with associated neuroendocrine differentiation. The patient was then treated with altogether four courses of induction chemotherapy.