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Multiple Sclerosis_2

21-year-old female with an acute onset of a unilateral sixth cranial nerve deficit. Brain MRI showed at least a dozen white matter lesions, one of them contrast-enhancing. Sensory evoked potentials showed a bilateral increase in latency. Multiple sclerosis was diagnosed, and the patient was treated by corticosteroids, followed by improvement of symptoms. The first follow-up revealed no focal neurological signs with a history of a transitory unilateral lower limb hyposthenia. On the second visit, a horizonto-rotatory nystagmus and irregular paraesthesia in the right toes are documented.

Multiple Sclerosis

23-year-old female had episodes of hemiparesis, dysmetria and parenthesis underwent MRI that showed a demyelization process. After she was hospitalized with Left Retro-Bulbar Optic Neuritis, she started treatment with weekly injections of AVONEX (Interferon beta-1a). Now she is in good general health and asks about stopping the Anovex treatment. The expert answers that she shouldn't stop the treatment , because the purpose of the medications is to prevent exacerbations, that may leave neurologic residual dysfunction.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

41 year-old male was recently diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis (MS) after episodes of leg and shoulder weakness and parasthesis. Lately he experiences dizziness. His MRI showed several demyelinating lesions, other ancillary tests showed demyelinating damage to the auditory and visual pathway. Currently he has no functional or sensorial deficiencies. He was offered several immunomodulatory treatment options: Rebif, Betaferon and Copaxone, and asks about their pros, cons and complications, and about the differential diagnosis.

Multiple sclerosis in remission under Avonex treatment

A 23 year old female was diagnosed 7 years ago with multiple sclerosis. The patient had 4 acute attacks 7 years ago, and since then she has been treated by Avonex. The patient had no attacks since then, feel healthy and lead a normal healthy life as a busy university student. She enjoys sports several times a week, and there are no problems regarding her physical and mental function. Neurologically, the only reminiscence of her illness is a positive Babinsky sign in the left leg and a temporal blindness in the left eye.

Multiple Sclerosis_1

21-year-old female with an acute onset of a unilateral sixth cranial nerve deficit. Brain MRI showed at least a dozen white matter lesions, one of them contrast-enhancing. Sensory evoked potentials showed a bilateral increase in latency. Multiple sclerosis was diagnosed, and the patient was treated by corticosteroids, followed by improvement of symptoms. The first follow-up revealed no focal neurological signs with a history of a transitory unilateral lower limb hyposthenia. On the second visit, a horizonto-rotatory nystagmus and irregular paraesthesia in the right toes are documented.

Demyelinizing Disease

47-year-old female with a diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis ,who suffers from progressive tetraparesis, more pronounced in the lower extremities. Her treatment included mitoxantrone and Interferon-beta treatment, both were discontinued because of side effects. Her movement difficulties, due to the left lower limb rigidity, are increasing progressively.

Left Knee Arthralgia

65-year-old female that suffers from pain in the left knee underwent examinations that showed femoral-tibial arthrotic manifestations, external degenerative meniscal tear and moderate joint effusion. A diagnosis of external degenerative meniscal tear was established. Further medical tests showed marked degeneration of the meniscal fibrocartilage, diffuse femoral-tibial arthrotic abnormalities, subchondral cysts and edema of the spongious bone, as well as rarefaction of the cartilage matrix, and manifestations of chondropathy.

Chronic ischemic brain changes and bilateral carotid atherosclerosis in 89 years old patient

Female patient aged 89 years old, suspected of light stroke, underwent Echo colour Doppler Test of the supra-aortic trunks and brain CT scan.
Echo Colour Doppler Test of the supra-aortic trunks presented an picture that would place indication for a surgical operation of thromboendarterectomy (TEA) of the right carotid bifurcation, for the importance and the bilaterality of the lesions besides the specific symptomatology.

Optic Neuropathy

Child with progressive exotropia secondary to the profound vision loss that appears to be to an optic neuropathy. The expert recommends to obtain additional studies in order to exclude potential diagnosis such as glioma, pathological disc edema, optic nerve drusen or dominant optic atrophy OPA-1 gene related.

Tentorial Meningioma

66-year-old female underwent a left suboccipital craniotomy for resection of a tentorial meningioma. The postoperative course has been difficult, marked by deterioration associated with posterior temporal and cerebellar edema and hemorrhage. First she seems to be in good general conditions showing only a slight strength deficiency in the left upper limb, but about a month after the surgery she started showing asthenia and melena, and esophageal gastroduodenoscopy revealed a sclerosis of active arterial bleeding from duodenal ulcer.

Wrist and Right Hand Pathology – additional opinion

47-year-old male has injured his right wrist while playing football 30 years ago. He always had some manageable pain while playing tennis. The pain increased during the last 12 months. The wrist CT scan that the expert recommended revealed diastasis between scaphoid and semilunar bone, palmar dislocation, dorsal intercalated segmental instability (DISI), marked radio-scaphoid arthritis and reactive sclerosis of the subchondral bone. This findings conformed the previous diagnosis of post traumatic osteoarthritis of radio-carpal joint brought upon by ligamentous injuries due to trauma.