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Cerebral Atrophy

A 52 year old began having difficulties with balance. His problems evolved and he had been seen by neurologists providing clinical evidence for a cerebellar motor syndrome. The most recent examination showed ataxia, dysarthria, nystagmus, dysphagia and hyperreflexia. Although the disease has progressed the patient is not severely disabled at this time. 

 

Pain in the left knee

25-year-old male suffers from pain in his left knee that shows up after carrying out a limited physical activity. The length and the importance of the pain are proportional to the intensity of the physical activity, the pain is gradual, and is linked to the movement of the knee joint. Knee MRN showed misalignment of the femur and kneecap with the patella, diffuse superficial edema of the kneecap cartilage, and signs of diffuse tendinopathy. In the expert's opinion, the patient suffers from patello-femoral knee pain due to patellar malalignment or patellar maltracking.

Cervical Dystonia – additional opinion

47-year-old female with neck problems underwent Blink Reflex tests and EMG of the neck, and was diagnosed with cervical dystonia. Medical treatments available for cervical dystonia include anticholinergic therapy, Baclofen, or deep brain stimulation, but the mainstay of therapy remains botulinum toxin injections, which are considered the superior treatment for symptom control with less side effects in comparison to oral medications.

Motor Neuron Disease

71-year-old female developed progressive dysarthria and dysphagia. Her doctor describes her speech difficulty as “Spastic dysarthria with slow and nasal speech" and noticed decreased mobility in the tongue and palate. She underwent multiple investigations and started Rilutek. The differential diagnosis of isolated swallowing and speaking difficulties include: Early motor neuron disease, Cranial neuropathies, Myopathies, Neuromuscular junction disorders and Neurodegenerative movement disorders.