78-year-old female with history of diabetes, and meningioma complicated by neurologic deficits following surgery, was diagnosed with progressive iodine-refractory metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Her initial work-up revealed lung metastasis. She underwent a right thyroidectomy and then left thyroidectomy and laryngectomy, and subsequently received I-131 on 8 occasions. She had a drop in thyroglobulin levels to the early treatments, but most recently, thyroglobulin has steadily increased.
66-year-old female was diagnosed, following persistent cough, with non-operable tumor of her lung with satellite nodules, and chemotherapy was initiated (first Cisplatin and Gemcitabine, and then switched to Tarceva). Response evaluation following the fourth cycle of chemotherapy showed either stability or an initiation of tumor response, but bone scintigraphy that was performed 6 months later revealed an area of increased uptake in the left hemithorax which could be suggestive of a secondary bone lesion.
66-year-old female was diagnosed, following persistent cough, with lung tumour with concomitant pulmonary nodules and a measurable enlargement of lymph nodes. FBS was positive for well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma and a needle biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma with associated neuroendocrine differentiation.
40 years old patient with clinical history that is consistent with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. After an attempt to replace thyroid function with thyroid hormone in pills (Eutirox), the patient had reported multiple symptoms which might be suggestive for adverse side effects of Eutirox (double vision, tachycardia, disturbance of sleep, outbursts of anger). The patient consulted her family doctor and decided to reduce the dose of Eutirox.
39-year-old male was diagnosed to have a neuroendocrine tumour with synchronic liver metastases. The disease was treated with an etoposide-carboplatin combination, Interferon A, somatostatin analogue and Zebra fish egg derived dietary supplements. In early 2008, a tumour progression was noted in that the disease started to produce the epithelial tumour markers CEA and CA 19-9.
47-year-old male presented with un-provoked portal and mesenteric vein thrombosis that caused persistent radiating pains of upper abdominal quadrants. The examinations found heterozygous factor II mutation, and family survey for the factor II mutation was recommended. The patient started anticoagulant therapy. In the expert's opinion, the main risk factors for portal vein thrombosis are: Prothrombotic disorder, abdominal inflammation, cirrhosis, cancer, abdominal intervention and abdominal infection.
75-year-old male with a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma resected from the right eyebrow in 2003. In 2006, the patient underwent resection of an ipsilateral squamous cell carcinoma in the parotid bed that was presumably a nodal metastasis. He then experienced local relapse treated with resection and adjuvant radiotherapy. There was recurrent disease involving the right cheek excised in 2008. In 2009, another recurrence led to resection with orbital exenteration. Pathology showed squamous cell carcinoma, with perineural invasion, and extension into the orbital muscles.
74-year-old male with gradual pan-cytopenia with predominant thrombocytopenia underwent a bone marrow biopsy that confirmed the diagnosis of Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). He is currently in good general health except for slowly progressive weakness and being constantly tired. In the expert's opinion, there is no indication for therapy at this time, since the counts are satisfactory for every-day living. Nevertheless, the treating options are erythopoietin injections, lenalidomide, Vidaza or Dacogen therapy, or stem cell transplantation.
A 74 year-old male, that was diagnosed as suffering from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with kariotype del(11)q(11) by a bone marrow biopsy, following a gradual pancytopenia. The patient complains about slowly progressive weakness and being constantly tired.He was offered chemotherapy, but he declined this treatment because of fear that it would worsen his already severe weakness.
74-year-old male has suffered over six months from pancytopenia. The main problem has been the symptomatic anemia, which required blood transfusions. Bone marrow aspiration revealed some myelodysplasia, and immune therapy has been prescribed. The expert suggests possible differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and recommends to establish a definite diagnosis before discussing treatment.
A 40 years old female has been suffering from cluster headache for the last 20 years. For the last 1.5 years it has been transformed from an episodic form to a chronic one. The patient reports an episodes of vertigo, for which she carried out otorhinolaryngology examination and brain NMR. On NMR was detected a periventricular lesion of about 1.2 cm, without mass effect. This lesion was probably present also 4 years ago, when the patient underwent another NMR.
70-year-old female with a history of diabetes mellitus began experiencing pain in the legs. In the last few months the pain localized in her inner thighs. It is burning in nature, with sudden intense attacks, and is consistent with neuropathic pain with neuralgic features. The expert suggests possible diagnosis, further investigation and symptomatic treatment. In his opinion, it is likely that the cause of the symptoms is peripheral neuropathy or radiculopathy.
The expert shares broad information regarding Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas: categories, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, risks and outcomes, and qualifications for performing surgery on the pancreas.
74-year-old male suffers from pancytopenia and symptomatic anemia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed some myelodysplasia, and the patient started immune therapy. He continues to require repeated blood transfusions. The expert recommends to complete the diagnostic workup. If no other disease is diagnosed than it can be assumed that the patient carries the diagnosis of MDS hypoplastic type.
Male patient had twist injury of his knee with tear of the ACL and was operated. After the surgery he suffered acute lumbalgia. Twelve days later he was re-admitted for knee effusion and elevated body temperature, and arthrolysis and joint washing were performed. Following the procedure he complained of hypoesthesia of the proximal lower left limb and knee. EMG reveled L4 and S1 root damage, and MRI showed reduced lumbar lordosis and different disc lesions. In case of compression neuropathy (tourniquet), the expert recommends symptomatic only treatment.
33-year-old female underwent an episode of dizziness followed by speech disturbances and some right hand weakness. Her physical exam showed very mild signs of right cerebelar dysfunction. The MRI found mid-Vermian Cavernoma with clear signs of past bleeding and Bulging into the fourth ventricle. A surgery for resection of the cavernous malformation was recommended.
Female patient aged 89 years old, suspected of light stroke, underwent Echo colour Doppler Test of the supra-aortic trunks and brain CT scan.
Echo Colour Doppler Test of the supra-aortic trunks presented an picture that would place indication for a surgical operation of thromboendarterectomy (TEA) of the right carotid bifurcation, for the importance and the bilaterality of the lesions besides the specific symptomatology.
A 58 years old male. 4 years ago the patient was hospitalized due to acute thrombosis of the right femoral-iliac axis. The patient was treated succesfully with locoregional intra-arterial fibrinolytic therapy. A follow-up arteriography, revealed sub-occlusion of the common iliac, occlusion of the right superficial femoral artery in Hunter’s canal. PTA + stent of the iliac was carried out with excellent final angiographic result.
48-year-old male underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis. During post-surgery he developed intense abdominal colics and a situation of hepatitis, probably from medicines as the tests carried out. Performed tests revealed changes of haematic values related to the hepato-renal function. MR-cholangiography showed cystic formation in the right lobe of the liver, and tumor markers that gave evidence of an increase of alpha-fetoprotein which should be monitored.
35 years old male. 3 years ago an episode of lumbar pain. After an X-ray test and lumbar spine MNR a disc herniation was diagnosed. Later on, disorders showed up sporadically, and 15 days ago, as a result of backache recurrence, the patient decided to carry out diagnostic deepening performing a new lumbosacral magnetic resonance and an electromyographic examination.
41-year-old male that in the past decade had suffered 2-3 times a year from bilateral knee pain which resolved spontaneously. Last year he had episodes of thumb pain that had lasted for several weeks and had affected grasp movements. The patient had responded to NSAID treatment for 2 weeks. MRI of the right knee showed Mild endoarticular effusion in the sub-quadriceps recess, chondropathy of the femoropatellar joint and lesion of the medial meniscus.
73-year-old female with history of backache and diagnosis of Adult Scoliosis, fell down getting a back trauma at the level of the left hip and inferior limb. After severe symptomatic worsening X-ray examination was performed. The findings were: asymmetric pelvis, bilateral coxarthrosis, coarse arthrosic and osteophytosic manifestations, discopathies and disc arthrosis. The prescribed therapy included Piroxicam, Tioside, Depalgos, and low-molecular-weight-heparin therapy that was later replaced by NSAIDs by injection