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Autoimmune hepatitis/cholangitis in patient with Crohn’s disease.

18 years old male. 4 months ago the patient was hospitalized due to epigastric abdominal pain, lack of appetite and weight loss. He was diagnosed with Crohn’s disease.
Hepatic biopsy, that was performed during this hospitslization, showed evidence of an overlap syndrome picture (cholangitis/hepatitis). He was initially treated with Cortisone and Azathioprine.

Left lumbosciatic pain from L4-L5 and L5-S1 annular protrusion

The patient experienced an episode of lower back pain while carrying home shopping bags. Her family doctor diagnosed a “left lumbosciatic pain” and prescribed injections with vials of Orudis and Voltaren. The treatment resulted in temporary remission, therefore the patient started a new treatment regiment of Indoxen and Bentelan + acupuncture treatment which was partially beneficial.

Left lumbosciatic pain from double disc protrusion

35-year-old female experienced an episode of lower back pain. Her doctor prescribed injections with Orudis, followed by further treatment with Voltaren. The treatment resulted in a simple remission of pain, that then re-appear at the same intensity as initially. The doctor established a new treatment that consisted of Indoxen and Bentelan. The patient experienced a remission of symptoms until even more intense lumbar pain returned spreading to the left leg. She recieved Voltaren, Muscoril, and Indoxen. Lumbar-sacral NMR showed disc central protrusion.

Degenerative eye problems - Bilateral colloid degeneration

69-year-old female with a diagnosis of Bilateral Colloid Degeneration. Her past Ophthalmological history began about 6 to 8 months ago with symptoms of dark spots and reduction of perception of luminosity in the visual field and complaints of a burning sensation on the sides of both eyes.

Metastatic, Non Small Cell Lung Cancer

67-year-old with multiple co morbities: Heart, renal, vascular, hypertensive. His biopsy showed left lower lobe lung mass that was a TTF-1 Non small cell lung cancer- most likely an adenocarcinoma. Multiple small nodules < than 1cm were noted without certain etiology, together with “masses” in the upper abdomen and left arm. Recommended therapy includes single agent Vinorelbine.

Cervical Dystonia

47-year-old female with a 4-year history of cervical dystonia. She has been treated with botulinum toxin injections which were ineffective for her. In the expert's opinion, the success of Botulinum toxin in cervical dystonia depends on a thorough clinical assessment, exact targeting of the chosen muscles, and adequate doses of toxin injected. The expert also suggests additional or alternative treatment strategies: medical treatment by different oral drugs, or deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus interna.

 

Carcinoma of the prostate

72-year-old male was diagnosed with Adenocarcinoma of prostate gleason score 7 (4+3). Treatment options with intent to cure are surgery, radical prostatectomy, or external beam radiation combined with hormonal therapy.

Metastatic, Non Small Cell Lung Cancer – further opinion

67-year-old with multiple co morbities: Heart, renal, vascular, hypertensive. His biopsy showed left lower lobe lung mass that was a TTF-1 Non small cell lung cancer- most likely an adenocarcinoma. Multiple small nodules < than 1cm were noted without certain etiology, together with “masses” in the upper abdomen and left arm. Recommended therapy includes single agent Vinorelbine.

Lichen planopilaris (follicular lichen planus) affecting the scalp

A 50 years old female complained about appearance of detached pruritic symptomatology affecting the trunk and the scalp. The patient carried out numerous dermatology specialist examinations on the following 3 years. Her allergy tests results were negative and she diagnosed with a seborrhoeic dermatitis affecting the scalp. As the patient did not achieve any result with the prescribed therapies ,she carried out biopsy. The biopsy was consistent with a “Lichen Planopilaris.”

Pulmonary Heteroplasia – additional opinion

66-year-old female was diagnosed, following persistent cough, with lung tumour with concomitant pulmonary nodules and a measurable enlargement of lymph nodes. FBS was positive for well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma and a needle biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma with associated neuroendocrine differentiation.

Recurrent episodes of dysuria in lower urinary tract

54-year-old male that Since the age of 35 years seeks medical help for Lower urinary tract symptoms mainly of irritative nature. Urological, Neurological, Orthopedic & Psychiatric aspects of his symptoms were evaluated. The patient was treated with a variety of drugs with marginal benefit.

2nd infertility and repeated implantation failure_1
41-year-old female with 2nd infertility and repeated implantation failure was treated with 4 long protocols with no success. The expert suggests to perform diagnostic hysteroscopy, hysterosalpingogram, and thrombophylia workup, to switch from the long protocols to a short one, and try to do double transfer or blastocyst transfer and consider assisted hatching as well.
Incomplete Vitreous Detachment of the Left Eye

63-year-old female with clinical ocular history of mild myopia and presbyopia, started seeing floaters in her right eye, which worsened on the next day and were accompanied by photophobia. Examination revealed the existence of posterior vitreous detachment, with no evidence for retinal tear. Three days later she was examined again due to worsening of the symptoms and laser photocoagulation was performed at an area of suspected retinal traction. She still experiences the existence of floaters as well as light flashes.

 

Erectile Dysfunction in Diabetes

50-year-old male complaining of gradual appearance of erectile dysfunction up to absolute impossibility of even just a single erectile event. His medical history is significant for Type II Diabetes Mellitus and prostatitis. He started taking Cialis, Levitra, and then Viagra without obtaining any benefit. He underwent EMG of the inferior limbs and hematochemical examinations, that revieled signs of diabetic polyneuropathy, and possible superimposed lumbosacral radiculopathy. The possibility to give intracavernous penile injections has been proposed.

Well differentiated mixed acinar and bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma of the lung

An occasion chest X-ray of a 74-year-old female revealed a thickening in her left lung, and the tumor was latter typified as non-small cell lung cancer. Her staging chest CAT scan was consistent with a primary tumor in the lingular sub-segment together with millimetric parenchymal nodules suspected as secondary. She underwent a lingular segmental resection of the left lung. The histological report described a mixed acinar and non-mucinous bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma of the lung.

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) secondary to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

15 years old patient presented with clinical syndrome of fever, fatigue, and diarrhea. Laboratory findings showed severe anemia with findings of microangiopathic hemolysis (schistocytes, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated LDH) and severe thrombocytopenia. He was later documented to have fluctuating ADAMTS13 activity that appeared to correlate with the hematologic abnormalities. He also had urinary findings of hematuria, moderate proteinuria, and creatinine as high as 1.4 mg/dL.

Multiple miscarriages

31-year-old woman suffering from secondary recurrent abortions. During a 2 year period, she underwent 4 miscarriages with a thorough investigation, including genetic, anatomic, immune and thrombophilic testing. Nothing of significance has emerged to justify 4 miscarriages.

Neuroroendocrine neoplasia with hepatic secondary lesions

39-year old male was diagnosed with metastases of Neuroendocrine tumor to the liver, presumably from pancreatic origin, suffered from significant weight loss. The administered treatments include Chemotherapy, Roferon A, Statins and Dietary supplements.

Possible Vitamin D/ Parathyroid Hormone Abnormality_1

51-year-old female with vitamin D deficiency and incompatibility between the PTH and vitamin D levels. She reports that as a child she had numerous cavities in her jaw, and her daughter also had multiple tooth fillings. She wonders whether the reason could be genetic abnormality.

 

Asthenic-dispeptic syndrome post laparoscopic cholecystectomy

48-year-old male underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis. During post-surgery he developed intense abdominal colics and a situation of hepatitis, probably from medicines as the tests carried out. Performed tests revealed changes of haematic values related to the hepato-renal function. MR-cholangiography showed cystic formation in the right lobe of the liver, and tumor markers that gave evidence of an increase of alpha-fetoprotein which should be monitored.

Partial seizures in 4 years old girl

A 4 year old girl with normal birth history and development with the exception of an episode of maternal hemiplegia during pregnancy. There is no significant family history of any neurological issues. Her medical history is unremarkable except for celiac disease which is treated with a gluten-free diet.
An half a year ago she developed scarlet fever and began to have episodes of right hand tremor lasting 6 seconds with no alteration of consciousness. One month later she had more events and was taken to the local ED where an EEG was performed.

Acquired deformity of left foot in Parkinson’s Disease
73-year-old male with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) since 2001. The cause for this consultation is a problem in the left foot that appeared in 2005 and has worsened since. The diagnosis was "a serious pronated flat foot transverse to the left” causing pain radiating up to the thigh and hip and causing recurrent falls with serious injury.
Chronic Glomerulonephritis with immune complexes

42-year-old female with chronic renal insufficiency secondary to immune complex mediated glomerulonephropathy, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. The recommended solution for her is kidney transplant.

Multiple myeloma with renal involvement, bone lesions and Neuropathy

71-year-old-male had been diagnosed as having multiple myeloma (MM), apparently of the IgA-Lambda type, with renal involvement. The disease course is characterized by "ups and downs responding to anti-MM therapy. During the disease course, several problems and complications developed: Renal failure, Bone lesions and Neuropathy.

Post Traumatic Double Pelvic Fracture

73-year-old female with history of backache and diagnosis of Adult Scoliosis, fell down getting a back trauma at the level of the left hip and inferior limb. After severe symptomatic worsening X-ray examination was performed. The findings were: asymmetric pelvis, bilateral coxarthrosis, coarse arthrosic and osteophytosic manifestations, discopathies and disc arthrosis. The prescribed therapy included Piroxicam, Tioside, Depalgos, and low-molecular-weight-heparin therapy that was later replaced by NSAIDs by injection

Feeding problems, vomiting and short stature in prematurely born child

The patient is a 21 month old female who was born prematurely (at almost 29 weeks) weighing only 650g. She was released after 3 months from NICU, when she was 41 weeks old, weight 2kg. Her parents did not have any problems till she was 5 months old. Her major problems since have been: poor feeding, failure to gain weight and linear growth retardation. The poor feeding has been handled by an NG tube and later, food administration through a direct gastric tube via a gastrostomy.

Anaplastic Astrocytoma in the left temporal lobe

65-year-old male experienced loss of consciousness, and a CT scan showed a left temporal mass which was confirmed by MRI. The patient underwent Stereotacti biopsy of mass, and Histological examination gave a diagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma. He started chemoradiation with fotemustine (nitrosourea alkylating agent). Repeated MRI showed progression with mass effect, mild uncal herniation and enlarging ventricles. He has stable expressive aphasia and hemisyndrome, lethargy and decreased motivation. His treatment was switched from phenobarbital to levetiracetam.

 

Atrial Fibrillation at medium /high ventricular response_2

72-year-old male had a TIA in 1995 and has been in chronic atrial fibrillation since 1992. In 2005 2 ablative procedures were ineffective. The main treatment strategy for his atrial fibrillation has consisted of rate control and oral anticoagulation. Despite several attempts of different medications (digoxin, beta-blockers) he has remained in atrial fibrillation with a relatively moderate to fast ventricular response.

Small Cell Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Cervix – additional opinion

36-year-old otherwise healthy female presented with an atypical pap smear. Biopsy of cervix revealed poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining showed the cells positive for NSE, SYN, CHR, and 90% positive for Ki67 (proliferative index). The findings of the PET-FDG test showed pathological absorption of FDG as a primary tumor of the cervix, towards the left side of the body. Moreover, evidence is seen of nodal metastatic spread in the retroperitoneum and pelvis, mainly on the left.

Motor Neuropathy – additional opinion

53-year-old male with lower motor neuropathy affecting all 4 limbs. The neurologic examination showed left limb hyposthenia, left upper limb hypotrophy and diffuse fasciculations. The patient was diagnosed with “suspect motor neuron disease" and was treated with IVIG cycles with slight initial improvement, but later lack of response and worsening of the clinical condition.

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), with kariotype del(11)q(11)

A 74 year-old male, that was diagnosed as suffering from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with kariotype del(11)q(11) by a bone marrow biopsy, following a gradual pancytopenia. The patient complains about slowly progressive weakness and being constantly tired.He was offered chemotherapy, but he declined this treatment because of fear that it would worsen his already severe weakness.

Ischemic Heart Disease

A very physically active 49-year-old male with a history of labile hypertension and hypercholesterolemia with an LDL cholesterol of 126 mg%. He underwent an exercise stress test which revealed reversible inferoseptal ischemia at a peak heart rate of 171 bpm and peak blood pressure of 195/85. In the expert's opinion, the results suggest that the patient has silent myocardial ischemia and may be at risk for sudden cardiac death, especially in light of the marked exertional level of activity.

Prostate Cancer and Parkinson's disease

66-year-old-male was diagnosed with prostate cancer following the appearance of irritative voiding symptoms. His past medical history is remarkable for Ischemic heart disease and rapidly progressive Parkinson's disease. Prostatic biopsy diagnosed Adenocarcinoma of prostate Gleason score 7 in both lobes.

Chronic ischemic brain changes and bilateral carotid atherosclerosis in 89 years old patient

Female patient aged 89 years old, suspected of light stroke, underwent Echo colour Doppler Test of the supra-aortic trunks and brain CT scan.
Echo Colour Doppler Test of the supra-aortic trunks presented an picture that would place indication for a surgical operation of thromboendarterectomy (TEA) of the right carotid bifurcation, for the importance and the bilaterality of the lesions besides the specific symptomatology.

Massive Portal and Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

47-year-old male presented with un-provoked portal and mesenteric vein thrombosis that caused persistent radiating pains of upper abdominal quadrants. The examinations found heterozygous factor II mutation, and family survey for the factor II mutation was recommended. The patient started anticoagulant therapy. In the expert's opinion, the main risk factors for portal vein thrombosis are: Prothrombotic disorder, abdominal inflammation, cirrhosis, cancer, abdominal intervention and abdominal infection.

Diffuse Intra-Axial expansive Lesion of the Enchephalic Trunk not surgically investigated_4

7-year-old boy with prodrome of right-sided and right face weakness, gait ataxia, and intermittent headaches. Head computed tomography demonstrated a tumor at the brainstem/posterior fossa, and then MRI confirmed a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (a typical brainstem glioma). Following initiation of dexamethasone (Decadron, steroid for vasogenic edema), the child has started experimental treatment with the medicine nimotuzumab to be followed with conventional radiotherapy.

Possible Anorexia, Vomiting, Failure to Gain Weight and Linear Growth Retardation

21-month-old female who was born at almost 29 weeks weighing only 650g and with birth height of 31 cm. Her major problems have been poor feeding, failure to gain weight and linear growth retardation. The poor feeding has been handled by an NG tube and subsequently, food administration through a direct gastric tube via a gastrostomy. She gradually gained weight to the extent of being overweight for her height. Laboratory evaluation revealed low absolute numbers of neutrophils low lymphocyte count. Endocrynology and Genetics workup were normal.

Chronic Glomerulonephritis

42-year-old female with chronic renal insufficiency secondary to immune complex mediated glomerulonephropathy, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. The recommended solution for her is kidney transplant. Possible causes of immune complex deposition disease include Cryoglobulinemia, IgA nephropathy, Membranous nephropathy, and Idiopathic immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis which is the diagnosis of exclusion.

Nephroblastoma (Wilms’ Tumor)

5-year-old girl with a suspected diagnosis of stage 1 Wilms' tumor.
The child's current presentation was an incidental finding of left abdominal swelling. The reports of the abdominal US, total body CT together with normal values of catecholamine metabolites seem to support the diagnosis of Wilms' tumor.
 

Chronic relapsing, non progressing eruption of purpuric papulovesicular lesions

A 57 year old female complained about appearance of red to dark red pruritic bullous lesions . These lesions were, and still are, located on the legs from the knee to the ankles, and on the back of the feet. These manifestations appeared in variable phases during the next 4 years, with episodes of more numerous pustules appearing in some periods, and more isolated in other periods.

Recurrent miscarriage

42-year-old patient with hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's) with a history of primary recurrent abortions, probably due to a uterine septum. She underwent 2 IVF cycle, the 2nd – with poor response. The expert suggests some diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Left Knee Arthralgia

65-year-old female that suffers from pain in the left knee underwent examinations that showed femoral-tibial arthrotic manifestations, external degenerative meniscal tear and moderate joint effusion. A diagnosis of external degenerative meniscal tear was established. Further medical tests showed marked degeneration of the meniscal fibrocartilage, diffuse femoral-tibial arthrotic abnormalities, subchondral cysts and edema of the spongious bone, as well as rarefaction of the cartilage matrix, and manifestations of chondropathy.

Neuroroendocrine neoplasia with hepatic secondary lesions_2

39-year-old male was diagnosed to have a neuroendocrine tumour with synchronic liver metastases. The disease was treated with an etoposide-carboplatin combination, Interferon A, somatostatin analogue and Zebra fish egg derived dietary supplements. In early 2008, a tumour progression was noted in that the disease started to produce the epithelial tumour markers CEA and CA 19-9.

Severe right coronary artery stenosis

49-year-old-male complained of a feeling of oppression behind the sternum, always when there was emotional stress. His coronary CT showed Severe high level stenosis with wall irregularities of the right coronary artery. The treatment options are coronary revascularization procedure versus optimized pharmacologic management.

Motor Neuropathy

52-year-old male with a one year history of lower motor neuropathy affecting the limbs, left upper and lower limbs clinically and all 4 limbs electrically. The neurologic examination showed left lower and left upper limb hyposthenia with mainly distal motor clumsiness, appearance of left upper limb hypotrophy and diffuse fasciculations. The patient was diagnosed with “suspect motor neuron disease" and was treated with IVIG cycles with slight initial improvement, but later lack of response and worsening of the clinical condition.

Prostatic pathology

46-year-old-male with symptoms of burning sensation during miction, soreness in perineal region when in seated position and pollakiuria was diagnosed with Prostatic pathology – "prostatodynia", after prostate calcifications and retention microcysts were observed in echography. In the expert's opinion it is inaccurate to localize this symptoms anatomically to the prostate, and the exact diagnosis is Painful Bladder Syndrome.

Advanced Metastatic Colon Cancer

58-year-old male suffers from advanced metastatic colon cancer with weakness, severe anemia and synchronic liver metastases. A good partial response has been accomplished by the combination chemotherapy and the antiangiogenic antibody Avastin. In the meantime, the patient has been started on a therapeutic protocol based on hyperthermia. In the expert's opinion, There is no evidence that hyperthermia is of any benefit in this patient.

Valvular Heart Disease in Dissection of the Ascendant Aorta and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

72-year-old male with a diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse and chronic severe mitral regurgitation, aortic root and ascending aorta dilatation and patent foramen ovale. On 06/2008 he had dissection of the descending aorta. The clinical course has been characterized by hemodynamic stability and the vascular surgeon decided on conservative treatment and follow–up by thoracic CT.

End Stage Renal Disease

54-year-old obese male with end stage renal disease due to membranous nephropathy, has received 2 renal transplants in the past and is highly sensitized. He underwent coronary angiography for vessel CAD, and PTCAs and stanting were performed. His current treatment consists of multiple medications including mycophylate according to the instructions of his transplant nephrologist. His cardiologists sees no contraindication to transplantation.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 - Ophthalmologic Exam is recommended

5-year-old boy was diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) eight months after birth. He has displayed café-au-lait spots, axillary freckling, macrocephaly, sphenoid dysplasia, brain hamartomas, right temporal arachnoid cyst, and optic glioma. Visual evoked potentials showed evidence of bilateral functional deficit.

Vitamin D Abnormality / Parathyroid Hormone Abnormality

51-year-old female with vitamin D deficiency among other medical problems: high blood pressure, episodes of transient syncope, and sleep apnea. In the expert's opinion frequent changes and discontinuations of drugs as well as big intervals between one dose to another, can be responsible for hypertensive crisis. Therefore the expert recommends to stop too frequent investigations , and instead focus on appropriate treatment, that should be combination of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker and diuretics.

Glioblastoma of the right temporal occipital region

A 61 year old male who presented with an epileptic episode was evaluated. A temporo-parietal-occipito mass was detected on MRI and PET CT. A follow-up MRI one year later showed progression of the lesion. One month later he had a craniotomy and what seems to be a partial removel of the mass. The pathology revealed glioblastoma. He was scheduled for radiotherapy two months later. The post operative MRI showed post operative changes including blood at the surgical cavity. However, there is a significant residual tumor present which is enhancing following administration of contrast.

Tentorial Meningioma

66-year-old female underwent a left suboccipital craniotomy for resection of a tentorial meningioma. The postoperative course has been difficult, marked by deterioration associated with posterior temporal and cerebellar edema and hemorrhage. First she seems to be in good general conditions showing only a slight strength deficiency in the left upper limb, but about a month after the surgery she started showing asthenia and melena, and esophageal gastroduodenoscopy revealed a sclerosis of active arterial bleeding from duodenal ulcer.

Stage 4 Neuroblastoma – additional opinion

1.5-year-old male suffered from eye swelling. His MRI revealed expansive lesion of left lateral orbital wall origin, with compression on the lateral rectus muscle. Later he was hospitalized due to fever and vomiting in left orbital lesion, suspecting a metastatic neuroblastoma. His eye examination revealed exophthalmus of the eye with exophoria and light dysfunction of the lateral rectus. His biopsies were indicative of stroma-poor neuroblastoma.

Melanoma with metastases

47-year-old male with superficial malignant melanoma of the trunk. After excision of the lesion, a sentinel lymph node biopsy revealed lymph node involved with multi-focal microscopic subcapsular tumor. Subsequently, a lymphadenectomy was performed and the patient initiated treatment with interferon A. As a consequence, he developed marked lymphedemia of the right leg.

Guillain-Barré Syndrome / Acute Myeloradiculoneuritis

45-year-old male who presented with acute onset of flaccid paraparesis more pronounced on the left, sensation of current shocks in both legs and sensory level from the umbilicus downwards. The symptoms have reached their pick within less than a day. On examination the left lower limb was plegic and the right lower limb was partially weak. EMG was interpreted as demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy. MRI showed hyperintense signals at the dorsal terminal segment of the marrow consistent with myelitis.

Stage 4 Neuroblastoma

1.5-year-old male suffered from eye swelling. His MRI revealed expansive lesion of left lateral orbital wall origin, with compression on the lateral rectus muscle. Later he was hospitalized due to fever and vomiting in left orbital lesion, suspecting a metastatic neuroblastoma. His eye examination revealed exophthalmus of the eye with exophoria and light dysfunction of the lateral rectus. His biopsies were indicative of stroma-poor neuroblastoma.

Diffuse Intra-Axial expansive Lesion of the Enchephalic Trunk

7-year-old boy presented with general asthenia, hand tremors, anxiety and episodes of diffuse headache. Exam noted facial asymmetry and symptoms progressed to vomiting. The patient had ataxia, dyarthria and facial weakness. CT and MRI revealed a expansile lesion of the brainstem and signs of obstructive hydrocephalus and possible leptomeningeal dissemination. Steriods improved clinical symptoms. The patient started an experimental treatment with Nimotuzumab, and Radiation therapy is planned to continue with Nimotuzumab.

Portosystemic Encephalopathy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Adult male with a history of hepatitis C, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and hepatocellular carcinoma. Patient treated for NHL with CHOP-R 4 years ago. However, post-treatment, he had continued presumed bone marrow suppression. He was diagnosed 2 years later with HCC and underwent TACE with good effect. Since the TACE, the patient has had persistent and worsening hepatic dysfunction with portal hypertension and ascites. Recently, the patient developed encephalopathy and was treated, as described below, with fast return to consciousness.

Demyelinizing Disease

47-year-old female with a diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis ,who suffers from progressive tetraparesis, more pronounced in the lower extremities. Her treatment included mitoxantrone and Interferon-beta treatment, both were discontinued because of side effects. Her movement difficulties, due to the left lower limb rigidity, are increasing progressively.

Pulmonary heteroplasia_2

66-year-old female was diagnosed, following persistent cough, with non-operable tumor of her lung with satellite nodules, and chemotherapy was initiated (first Cisplatin and Gemcitabine, and then switched to Tarceva). Response evaluation following the fourth cycle of chemotherapy showed either stability or an initiation of tumor response, but bone scintigraphy that was performed 6 months later revealed an area of increased uptake in the left hemithorax which could be suggestive of a secondary bone lesion.

Psychomotor retardation due to spinal amyotrophy

10 months old, female. After normal birth (at the 40th week of pregnancy) and neonatal period, started to suffer from gastroesophageal reflux and recurrent respiratory infections, at times with broncospasm. In addition, psychomotor retardation was found and the young patient was assessed by a neurologist. The tests run (EMG and genetics for SMA) pointed to the diagnosis of Spinal Amyotrophy.
After hospitalization due to catarrhal bronchitis, the patient was discharged in good general conditions with recomendations for respiratory physiotherapy and neurological rehabilitation.

Endometrial Cancer

52-year-old female with a diagnosis of stage IIIC Grade 3 endometrial cancer. Following the adequate surgery she was started on a chemotherapy protocol, including Taxol, Epirubicin and Cisplatinum. However the first course caused severe toxicity and was switched to Taxol and carboplatinum. One treatment option is by intense combination chemotherapy, and therefore the expert supports the protocol used by this case. Another option is endocrine manipulation by hormone therapy.

Spinal pathology – additional opinion

75-year-old male with multiple complaints related to both his lumbar and cervical spine. He complains of low back pain, cramping and numbness in his thigh muscles, radiating left leg pain to his toes, as well as unsteady gait. He experiences numbness in his shoulders, arms and hands that gets worse over the day. He had a C4-5 fusion and a lumbar procedure at L4-5. The cervical MTI showed degenerative disease worse at C6-7 where there is moderate central and foraminal stenosis.

Spinal pathology

75-year-old male with multiple complaints related to both his lumbar and cervical spine. He complains of low back pain, cramping and numbness in his thigh muscles, radiating left leg pain to his toes, as well as unsteady gait. He experiences numbness in his shoulders, arms and hands that gets worse over the day. He had a C4-5 fusion and a lumbar procedure at L4-5. The cervical MTI showed degenerative disease worse at C6-7 where there is moderate central and foraminal stenosis.

Multirelapse Squamed Carcinoma of the Skin

75-year-old male with a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma resected from the right eyebrow in 2003. In 2006, the patient underwent resection of an ipsilateral squamous cell carcinoma in the parotid bed that was presumably a nodal metastasis. He then experienced local relapse treated with resection and adjuvant radiotherapy. There was recurrent disease involving the right cheek excised in 2008. In 2009, another recurrence led to resection with orbital exenteration. Pathology showed squamous cell carcinoma, with perineural invasion, and extension into the orbital muscles.

Multiple Sclerosis_2

21-year-old female with an acute onset of a unilateral sixth cranial nerve deficit. Brain MRI showed at least a dozen white matter lesions, one of them contrast-enhancing. Sensory evoked potentials showed a bilateral increase in latency. Multiple sclerosis was diagnosed, and the patient was treated by corticosteroids, followed by improvement of symptoms. The first follow-up revealed no focal neurological signs with a history of a transitory unilateral lower limb hyposthenia. On the second visit, a horizonto-rotatory nystagmus and irregular paraesthesia in the right toes are documented.

Anterior chamber cleavage syndrome in right eye in a 2 months old infant

Infant female was diagnosed with anisocoria. "cornea of reduced size, anterior chamber nearly absent, anomalous iris marking, miotic pupil" were found in Ophthalmologic examination. Gonioscopy examination revealed posterior embryotoxon in both eyes, and bilateral "fibrous lobes" in the anterior chamber angle. There were also other anomalies found in the right eye.

Glioblastoma

55-year-old female was diagnosed with glioblastoma after suffering increasing headaches, and was treated with radiation with concurrent Temodal. MRI exam that was performed after 2 additional cycles of CCNU showed tumor progression. The expert recommends different further treatment options.

Cluster headache

A 40 years old female has been suffering from cluster headache for the last 20 years. For the last 1.5 years it has been transformed from an episodic form to a chronic one. The patient reports an episodes of vertigo, for which she carried out otorhinolaryngology examination and brain NMR. On NMR was detected a periventricular lesion of about 1.2 cm, without mass effect. This lesion was probably present also 4 years ago, when the patient underwent another NMR.

Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis (Hashimoto thyroiditis)

40 years old patient with clinical history that is consistent with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. After an attempt to replace thyroid function with thyroid hormone in pills (Eutirox), the patient had reported multiple symptoms which might be suggestive for adverse side effects of Eutirox (double vision, tachycardia, disturbance of sleep, outbursts of anger). The patient consulted her family doctor and decided to reduce the dose of Eutirox.

 

Pain in the left knee

25-year-old male suffers from pain in his left knee that shows up after carrying out a limited physical activity. The length and the importance of the pain are proportional to the intensity of the physical activity, the pain is gradual, and is linked to the movement of the knee joint. Knee MRN showed misalignment of the femur and kneecap with the patella, diffuse superficial edema of the kneecap cartilage, and signs of diffuse tendinopathy. In the expert's opinion, the patient suffers from patello-femoral knee pain due to patellar malalignment or patellar maltracking.

Sinus Tachycardia in Mitral Insufficiency

43-year-old female with history of continued cigarette smoking and complaints of palpitations. A sinus tachycardia of 160 is documented with little physical activity. Pulmonary function studies revealed obstructive ventilatory defects, consistent with the smoking or beta blockers. She has been documented to have moderate mitral regurgitation, consistent with prior rheumatic disease. At the present time, she is on Inderal.

Elevation of Ca 19-9

72-year-old female with elevated levels of the tumour marker CA 19-9 but none of the diagnostic tests showed any tumour finding. The levels of CA 19-9 remained in the pathologic range, although with decreasing values. Currently, the patient is not reporting any significant symptoms.

Hepatic metastases from prostatic adenocarcinoma

A 66 year old man that was diagnosed with prostate cancer underwent radical prostatectomy 2 years ago. Pathology result of the surgical specimen revealed poorly differentiated prostate carcinoma with positive surgical margins. He was treated with antiandrogens and adjuvant radiation therapy. Since the beginning of the last year and under hormonal monotherapy with Casodex his PSA levels doubled. PET CT of the abdomen and the pelvis revealed hepatic lesion.

Right Microtia

1-month-old female with Microtia of the right ear, which is a single finding and not part of a syndrome. Hearing test is recommended.

 

Pulmonary heteroplasia

66-year-old female was diagnosed with lung tumour within the right hemithorax with concomitant pulmonary nodules and a measurable enlargement of lymph nodes. FBS was positive for well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma and a needle biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma with associated neuroendocrine differentiation. The patient was then treated with altogether four courses of induction chemotherapy.

Rectal Carcinoma, Gastric Carcinoma, Metastases.

52-year-old male was diagnosed in 2004 with a carcinoma of the lower rectum and underwent surgical anterior resection of the rectal tumor which was a well differentiated adenocarcinoma. In 2008 he underwent emergency operation for a perforated pyloric ulcer and then a radical resection of a gastric tumor which infiltrated the entire thickness of the gastric wall. It was a G3 diffuse type adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells, at pT3N2 stage.

Right Knee Pain

41-year-old male that in the past decade had suffered 2-3 times a year from bilateral knee pain which resolved spontaneously. Last year he had episodes of thumb pain that had lasted for several weeks and had affected grasp movements. The patient had responded to NSAID treatment for 2 weeks. MRI of the right knee showed Mild endoarticular effusion in the sub-quadriceps recess, chondropathy of the femoropatellar joint and lesion of the medial meniscus.

Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia (BOOP)

16-year-old boy started to cough without any preceding febrile illness. With the persistent of the cough and the diagnostic procedure he was diagnosed as suffering from BOOP and corticosteroid was initiated. In the expert's opinion the diagnosis is post infectious hyperactive airway disease.

IgG Multiple Myeloma

57-year-old male who was found to have back pain and hyperglobulinemia approximately. Marrow biopsy was consistent with IgG myeloma. He was treated with steroids and local radiotherapy with improvement in symptoms and a modest reduction in the M-component. He received melphalan-based autologous stem cell transplantation, which was complicated by reversible respiratory failure. Unfortunately, he relapsed and was treated with bortezomib and steroids for 6 cycles followed by thalidomide. The disease has responded to therapy.

Non-invasive papillary urothelial G2 carcinoma

65-year-old male was recently diagnosed with a bladder tumor. He had abdominal imaging which revealed a space occupying lesion involving the left bladder wall as well as a mild degree of left hydronephrosis. During his operation a papillary tumor was resected and a stent was inserted into the left ureter. Pathology revealed Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder non invasive (Ta) G2.

Pulmonary heteroplasia_3

66-year-old female was diagnosed, following persistent cough, with non-operable tumor of her lung with satellite nodules, and chemotherapy was initiated (first Cisplatin and Gemcitabine, and then switched to Tarceva). Response evaluation following the fourth cycle of chemotherapy showed either stability or an initiation of tumor response, but bone scintigraphy that was performed 6 months later revealed an area of increased uptake in the left hemithorax which could be suggestive of a secondary bone lesion.

 

Persistent Vertigo

47-year-old female who had the onset of persistent vertigo. The first evaluations revealed right beating nystagmus on gaze straight and to the right, unsteady gait with limb ataxia, and positive head thrust to the left. Improvement seemed to be occurring in that gait deviation with eyes closed was no longer present. Vestibular physical therapy exercises were started. On the next evaluations there was paroxysmal positional vertigo from the left ear and minimal neurosensory hearing loss. An audiogram showed minor neurosensory deafness.

Chronic Pain in the Lower Rib Cage – Suspected Intercostal Neurinoma

67-year-old male began to complain of chronic pain in the left lower rib cage. The pain is stitch, ever-present, dull and localized at the level of his left last rib, and became slightly worse in the last 2 years. Recent image findings: MRI - "Ovalish hypoechogenic solid formation, Ultra sound - "Suspected intercostal neurinoma at ribs 10, 11 and 12.

NF-1 and optic nerve glioma – additional opinion

5-year-old boy with diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 underwent ophthalmological evaluation that showed reduction in visual acuity and reduction of the bilateral visual field. MRI showed presence of a big expansive lesion and of temporopolar arachnoid cyst. The treating doctors recommended an urgent surgery in order to reduce the cerebral hypertension. In the expert's opinion, after having seen the images, the arachnoid cyst has not changed that much, and probably has little impact or effect, and therefore meanwhile no surgery is warranted.

Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid with Multiple and Diffuse Nodular Secondarisms of the Pulmonary Parenchyma

78-year-old female with history of diabetes, and meningioma complicated by neurologic deficits following surgery, was diagnosed with progressive iodine-refractory metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Her initial work-up revealed lung metastasis. She underwent a right thyroidectomy and then left thyroidectomy and laryngectomy, and subsequently received I-131 on 8 occasions. She had a drop in thyroglobulin levels to the early treatments, but most recently, thyroglobulin has steadily increased.

Operated breast cancer with metastases

A 55 years old female was diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast 7 years ago. The patient underwent a right quadrantectomy and axillary lymph nodes removal, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. 5 years ago, after diagnostic finding of reappearance of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast, the patient underwent right mastectomy and revisional surgery of axillary armpit, and another adjuvant chemotherapy. 

Hyperthyroidism in autoimmune non-nodular thyroiditis

21 years old female who provided us medical report of her endocrinological examination with diagnosis of “Basedow’s Hyperthyroidism in autoimmune non-nodular thyroid (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis). Under therapy with Tapazole at the dosage of 2 tablets daily with FT3 and FT4 values within normal limits and TSH=0.00” . In the light of such values and of the clinical picture, the specialist confirmed the current therapy with Tapazole (2 tablets daily) suggesting therapeutic dosage of 131 Iodine after examination at nuclear medicine department.

Suspected Fibromyalgia

27-year-old female with a diagnosis of suspected fibromyalgia. Her history includes long standing widespread musculo – skeletal pain connected to a feeling of general slight illness, as well as a series of accompanying symptoms: frequent migraines, cervicalgia, stomach disorders, chest pain and tachycardia . Therefore, she has carried out various follow-ups that each time detected a different problem for which the relevant therapy was set out.

3-year old boy with Medulloblastoma

34 month old male has a classical medulloblastoma, probably originating in the vermis. A gross total resection was achieved. He is undergoing a chemotherapy based protocol with autologous stem cell re-infusion.

Relapse of Chondrosarcoma of Cervical Spine

59-year-old male, suffering from locally recurrent second degree chondrosarcoma of the cervical spine. Following diagnosis his treatment was composed of 3 locoregional interventions: surgery, hemivertebrectomy, and adjuvant fractionated proton beam radiation therapy.

Left cervicobrachialgia following cervical discectomy

43-year-old male suffered of cervical disc herniation, and therefore C5-6 and C6-7 discectomy and fusion were done. About one year later he experienced acute sciatica followed by hot pricking sensation in the arm and neck. MRI showed far lateral bulge of L3-4 on the left and small disc bulge on C4-5, and a larger C5-6 disc herniation. Neurological examination disclosed C6-C7 radiculopathy on the left, minimal weakness of biceps and triceps muscles and reduced biceps reflex. EMG and physical examination were consistent with bilateral radiculopathy, attributed to small disc herniation.

Metastatic non small cell lung Cancer

67 year old male, previously a heavy smoker, suffering for 2 months from weakness, diminished appetite and weight loss. Tests showed a mass in right arm, possibly attached to muscle, and tenderness in right ribs. Chest CT showed a mass in LLL, lung foci, suspected secondary spread and masses in upper abdomen. CT guided biopsy from right lung mass was consistent with non small cell carcinoma with extensive necrosis. SPECT bone scan showed many focal findings in the vertebrae L,D2,7, most of the ribs bilaterally and in the limbs- suspected for secondary pathology.

PANCYTOPENIA OF UNKNOWN ETIOLOGY

74-year-old female evaluated for pancytopenia of unknown etiology, which required blood transfusions. Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy showed a hypocellular bone marrow with trilineage maturation. The treatment include immunosuppressive agents and erythropoietin.

PANCYTOPENIA OF UNKNOWN PATHOGENESIS

 74-year-old female evaluated for pancytopenia of unknown etiology, which required blood transfusions. Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy showed a hypocellular bone marrow with trilineage maturation. The treatment include immunosuppressive agents and erythropoietin.

 

Multiple Sclerosis_1

21-year-old female with an acute onset of a unilateral sixth cranial nerve deficit. Brain MRI showed at least a dozen white matter lesions, one of them contrast-enhancing. Sensory evoked potentials showed a bilateral increase in latency. Multiple sclerosis was diagnosed, and the patient was treated by corticosteroids, followed by improvement of symptoms. The first follow-up revealed no focal neurological signs with a history of a transitory unilateral lower limb hyposthenia. On the second visit, a horizonto-rotatory nystagmus and irregular paraesthesia in the right toes are documented.

Recurrent metastases in malignant tumor of left forearm

4-year-old boy presented with a lesion on his left forearm was diagnosed with small cell malignant neoplasm. It was thought that he had a malignant myoepithelioma but other reports suggested a primitive poorly differentiated neoplasia of neuro-ectodermal origin. He underwent surgery and chemotherapy but subsequently developed pulmonary metastases. The treating doctors recommended a second line chemo approach.

Post-trauma tendinopathy of left shoulder

44-year-old male that sustained a contusion to his left shoulder while falling at his home. Following the fall he suffered severe pain. An ultrasound to the shoulder was interpreted as showing some changes in the ACJ and peritendinitis of the biceps brachi. The orthopedic surgeon that examined the patient about 2 weeks post injury had the impression of tendinopathy and requested an MRI that had indicated changes in signals in the ACJ and superior impingement of the supraspinatus and peritendinitis of the biceps. On the basis of these findings an arthroscopy was suggested.

Chronic talalgia of undetermined nature

A 58 years old male. 4 years ago the patient was hospitalized due to acute thrombosis of the right femoral-iliac axis. The patient was treated succesfully with locoregional intra-arterial fibrinolytic therapy. A follow-up arteriography, revealed sub-occlusion of the common iliac, occlusion of the right superficial femoral artery in Hunter’s canal. PTA + stent of the iliac was carried out with excellent final angiographic result.

Long-term results of mandibular bone grafting operations

48-year-old male who had undergone multiple surgical attempts to augment mandibular bone for implant placement ('pins'). The patient received the opinion of a spesialist who spotted severe atrophy in the right mandibular posterolateral area. He reported on the condition of the mucosa with high insertion of frenii in the level of the alveolar ridge. Also the report related to occlusion problem and temporo mandibular dysfunction. In 2007, the patient received a report following a neurophysiological examination of the masseter muscle showing a change in sensation from the lower alveolus.

Respiratory Insufficiency with Tracheotomy_1

72-yaer-old female was hospitalized due to bronchopneumonia complicated by septic shock. Her complicated diagnosis was: acute respiratory insufficiency with recent results of right mediobasal bronchopneumonic foci with respiratory distress, Hypertensive hypertrophic heart disease, Renal insufficiency, Anemia, Drained left PNX, Tracheomalacia, and Gastritis, and various medical procedures were performed, including Tracheostomy.

Severe Osteoporosis and Multiple Vertebral Fractures

82-year-old female with severe osteoporosis manifests with vertebral fractures. During treatment with Risedronate, she suffered another fracture. In the expert's opinion, taking into account the patient's age, the presence of fractures and low BMD, the patient is at a very high risk to develop a recurrent fracture so treatment must be given. The expert recommends to rule out secondary causes for osteoporosis such as vitamin D deficiency, to keep a healthy as possible way of life, and change the treatment with Risedronate to Forteo (Teriparatide).

Artificial Urinary Sphincter Reimplantation

81-year-old male that suffers from mixed incontinence with a prominent component of stress incontinence, following a transurethral procedure. Initially attempts were made to gain continence by a Lenzi's procedure, electro stimulation and various anticholinergis. All in all without satisfactory response. He underwent implantation of an artificial sphincter, the AMS AS 800 (AUS) that provided continence and the patient was content with the end result. The AUS was functioning fine until the patient underwent a road accident trauma, then a sphinteric prosthesis malfunction occurred.

Pathology of the Wrist and Right Hand

47-year-old male has injured his right wrist while playing football 30 years ago. He always had some manageable pain while playing tennis. The pain increased during the last 12 months, and following this, MRI studies were performed. They revealed wrist Diastasis between scaphoid and semilunar bone in agreement with a lesion of the scapholunate ligament and pronounced radioscaphoid arthrotic manifestations. In the expert's opinion, the patient is suffering from post traumatic osteoarthritis of radio-carpal joint brought upon by ligamentous injuries due to trauma.

Nocturnal enuresis treated by Minirin

A 12 year old boy suffers from nocturnal enuresis. He underwent a specialist examination, who advised a therapy with Minirin. Under minimal dosage of Minirin enuresis stopped. But as soon as the treatment was interrupted, the enuresis showed up again.

Juvenile Arthritis with Systemic Onset (Stills Disease) – Additional Opinion

60-year-old patient was diagnosed with Still's disease. He was treated with high doses of corticosteroids (methylprednisolone, 110 mg daily). The dose was gradually lowered to 4 mg daily. In the last 2 years he had two exacerbations of the disease which were successfully treated by the increased dose of methylprednisolone. The expert recommends different complementary treatments that can be helpful to reduce pain , other symptoms and inflammation, reduce the dose of the drugs needed to control the disease, and improve quality of life.

Right foot pain

38-year-old female started to suffer pain in her right foot on without a notable trauma. She was examined by several orthopeadic doctors and she got different opinions. The first diagnosed medium sprain of right foot and slight tumefaction on forefoot, and suggested her paracetamol administration that was with no benefit. The second specialist diagnosed sesamoiditis and right plantar fasciitis with 3rd degree cavus-valgus feet and recommended Depomedrol + Lidocaine, Pennsaid drops and NSAIDs. As part of the examinations she underwent an MR with and without Gadolinium.

Cystic Pleuro-Pulmonary Blastoma – additional opinion

2-year-old girl was diagnosed with pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB). She presented with cough and fever which was treated as pneumonia. When her symptoms did not improve, a chest X-ray showed a right lower lobe infiltrate with pleural effusion and a cystic lesion superiorly. She was further treated with antibiotics and improved clinically, but follow-up with chest CT showed a persistent cystic area in the right lower lobe and pneumothorax. She thus underwent pleural drainage and thoracoscopic biopsy, revealing a diagnosis of "cystic pleuropulmonary blastoma".

Adeno Carcinoma of Lung

45-year-old male with stage 4 Adeno carcinoma of the lung. The tumor was found to obstruct the left superior lobe bronchus with subsequent subtotal athelectasis and retracted left hemi-thorax. The exam found diffuse thickening of the mediastinal pleura, lymphadenopathy and analogous formations of probable secondary nature. In the expert's opinion, if the patient is already at stage IV, he should not undergo surgery. He recommends combined endobronchial and external irradiation together with chemotherapy.

SOL (Space occupying lesion) of brain

33-year-old female underwent an episode of dizziness followed by speech disturbances and some right hand weakness. Her physical exam showed very mild signs of right cerebelar dysfunction. The MRI found mid-Vermian Cavernoma with clear signs of past bleeding and Bulging into the fourth ventricle. A surgery for resection of the cavernous malformation was recommended.

Post traumatic shoulder luxation

31 years old healthy man, a month ago, during a soccer match, had a trauma of the right shoulder and was diagnosed with right glenohumeral luxation.
The Emergency Room orthopedist reduced luxation, and during the first days of the event, the patient treated pain, of modest importance and bearable. At present, the day pain has completely disappeared reappearing a bit at night and affecting mainly the forearm.

Basocellular carcinoma

62-year-old female has had a basal cell carcinoma excised from the right side of her nose. The lesion was removed and on pathology examination, the tissue edges were not involved with tumor.

Metastatic well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma in liver_2

78-year-old male was diagnosed with metastatic well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma with unknown primary. He recently underwent explorative laparotomy that revealed solitary metastasis in the liver, and a hard lesion in the mid-ileum suspicious for the primary carcinoid. A frozen section showed foreign body type giant cell granuloma. Left lateral segmentectomy of the liver showed a white hard lesion. The expert recommends a regular follow-up that should consist of abdominal ultrasonography combined with CT or MRI.

Age Related Macular Degeneration – additional opinion

62-year-old male complained of decreased visual acuity in his right eye for 1 week. His past ocular history was relevant for an episode of central serous choroidopathy. Upon examination there was a large subretinal hemorrhage in the macular area , with a visible choroidal neovascularization. Intravitreal Bevacizumab (Avastin) was injected. One week following treatment, there was still macular bleeding and no improvement in visual acuity. Therefore, a vitrectomy was performed. There was impressive resolution of the subretinal hemorrhage but still some intraretinal fluids.

Neuroendocrine Neoplasia

60-year-old male was diagnosed with a symptomatic metastatic well differentiated rectal neuroendocrine tumor, with multiple liver metastases. This tumor is over-expressing somastatin receptors, which was demonstrated by an otreoscan. He was started on Sandostatin LAR 30 once a month.

Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma of Breast

51-year-old female underwent Lumpectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy for infiltrating duct carcinoma of her left breast. The tumor was completely excised and concluded as stage I. The estrogen and progesterone receptor status were optimal, and therefore the expert recommends hormone therapy. He also recommends to complete the ongoing adjuvant irradiation program, to complete staging procedures, and to undergo genetic counseling.

Low back pain due to spondylosis and degenerative disc disease

35 years old male. 3 years ago an episode of lumbar pain. After an X-ray test and lumbar spine MNR a disc herniation was diagnosed. Later on, disorders showed up sporadically, and 15 days ago, as a result of backache recurrence, the patient decided to carry out diagnostic deepening performing a new lumbosacral magnetic resonance and an electromyographic examination.

Bilateral Pronatory Syndrome Greater in the right foot – additional opinion

10-year-old female with pain and swelling of the right foot was diagnosed bilateral pronatory syndrome. The specialist recommended foot surgery for the lengthening of the Achilles tendon and application of retrograde endorthesis screw. The expert disagrees with the necessity of this procedure, and suggests differential diagnosis and conservative treatment that includes pain killers, soft shoes with soft insoles inside and mild elevation of the medial longitudinal arch of the feet.

Multiple Myeloma (MM) and Cardiomyopathy

51-year-old-male, complained of low back pain and has been diagnosed as having multiple myeloma (MM), light chain disease of the lambda type. His past medical history is remarkable for a cardiac disease. The expert believes it is cardiomyopathy, which can be amyloidotic (related to the MM) or hypertensive-atherosclerotic, or combined. The patient received anti-MM induction type of treatment (VTD combination), followed by high-dose cyclophosphamide (HDC) and autologous stem cell transplantation. The patient's low platelet count is of concern.

Bilateral catarrhal tubotympanitis and bilateral chronic otomastoiditis

35-year-old-male with recurring otitis diagnosed with bilateral chronic otomastoiditis characterized by mastoid sclerosis and hypodense tissue. Cycles of thermal crenotherapy, mild climate work and avoiding cold climates are recommended. Later on a bilateral catarrhal tubotympanitis was also diagnosed.

Cervical Disk Hernia_3

62-year-old male with extremity radiculopathy and weakness in intrinsic muscles. His diagnosis include stenosis (cervical spine C3-C7), rediculitis, degenerative disc disease and cervical spondylosis with possible myelopathy. Given the patient's age and the appearance of the MRI scan showing significant multilevel stenosis, the expert recommends surgical intervention.

 

Prostatic adenocarcinoma – additional information

78-years-old male with poorly differentiated hormone resistant prostate cancer. The expert recommends treatment with Ketoconazole as a "second line" hormonal treatment, together with LHRH agonist that he currently takes.

Stage I Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

38-year-old female was diagnosed with stage I uterine leiomyosarcoma with high mitotic count and infiltrative-type growth margins. The expert recommends to give her adjuvant chemotherapy after the surgery - 6 courses of Adriamycin + Ifosfamide chemotherapy and consider radiotherapy afterwards for local control. An alternative treatment is with the combination of Gencitabine + Taxotere. Her prognosis depends on recurrence.

 

Metastatic Heteroplasia of the Lung

70-year-old male underwent epileptic seizures. A brain CAT scan showed a space occupying lesion with surrounding edema in his left frontal lobe. A subsequent MRI examination enabled the demonstration of four separated lesions in his brain consistent with metastases. A total body CAT scan demonstrated a mass in the right lung. The diagnosis of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the lung was established by bronchoscopy and transbronchial biopsy. The patient was treated by brain irradiation.

Herniated Disc L4-L5

58-year-old female diagnosed with herniated discs at vertebrae L4-L5. MR scans present signs of degeneration in L4-5, mild degenerative scoliosis, secondary narrowing of the canal and of disc space in L5-S1 level, central and left disc herniation at L4-5 level, and swelling of L4 root.

Optic Neuropathy

Child with progressive exotropia secondary to the profound vision loss that appears to be to an optic neuropathy. The expert recommends to obtain additional studies in order to exclude potential diagnosis such as glioma, pathological disc edema, optic nerve drusen or dominant optic atrophy OPA-1 gene related.

Atrial fibrillation triggered by left foci and atrial flutter

p68-year-old male with recurrent asymptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation underwent ablation of the cavo-tricuspidal isthmus. Holter exams showed sinus rhythm with brief and isolated episodes of atrial fibrillation, again with focal trigger. The choices of therapy are rate control, rhythm control, catheter ablation or antithrombotic therapy.

Chromosome 22 micro-deletion syndrome

26-year-old female diagnosed with Chromosome 22 micro-deletion syndrome (VCFS). Psychiatric exam showed borderline cognitive ability, with attentive-amnesic-executive deficits. The suggested treatment is drug therapy together with psychological intervention.

Stage IV Melanoma

26-year-old patient was diagnosed with stage 4 melanoma with massive metastatic spreading around the lymph node, and underwent surgical treatment: radical lymphoadenectomy of the right armpit, splenectomy, and resection of two subcutaneous lesions. Chemotherapy is also planned.

Anemia due to blood loss in obscure intestinal bleeding

43 years old patient without any notable pathologies in anamnesis. After two episodes of severe hematochezia the patient underwent EGD, Colonoscopy, digestive system X-rays with contrast medium and capsule endoscopy camera (digestive system micro camera) without any pathological evidences

Chronic Atrial Fibrillation in Patient with Prior Hemoptoic Episodes in Bilateral Bronchiectases

74-year-old female suffers from recurrent episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) and has been recommended oral anti-coagulant therapy with warfarin (Coumadin). She has mitral regurgitation, and on the other hand was diagnosed as suffering from congenital bronchiectasis with several episodes of significant bleeding (hemoptysis). Following these hemoptoic episodes she underwent series of diagnostic as well as therapeutic pulmonary intervention (bronchoscopy, angiography, embolization).

ABO-incompatible (ABOI) renal transplantation

The expert answers various questions referred to him regarding ABO-incompatible (ABOI) renal transplantation without splenectomy, using antigen-specific immunoadsorption (IA) and rituximab.

 

Wrist and Right Hand Pathology – additional opinion

47-year-old male has injured his right wrist while playing football 30 years ago. He always had some manageable pain while playing tennis. The pain increased during the last 12 months. The wrist CT scan that the expert recommended revealed diastasis between scaphoid and semilunar bone, palmar dislocation, dorsal intercalated segmental instability (DISI), marked radio-scaphoid arthritis and reactive sclerosis of the subchondral bone. This findings conformed the previous diagnosis of post traumatic osteoarthritis of radio-carpal joint brought upon by ligamentous injuries due to trauma.

Cerebral Atrophy

A 52 year old began having difficulties with balance. His problems evolved and he had been seen by neurologists providing clinical evidence for a cerebellar motor syndrome. The most recent examination showed ataxia, dysarthria, nystagmus, dysphagia and hyperreflexia. Although the disease has progressed the patient is not severely disabled at this time. 

 

Visual disturbances of unknown etiology

A 43 years old woman man who presented with various symptoms consisting of visual disturbances, burning sensation in the eyes, headache, hypersensitivity to noise and dizziness. Repeated neurological examinations were reported normal. A thorough neurological work-up that included blood tests, brain MRI, EEG and echocardiography was normal.
 

Secondary Malignancy in mesentery following primary rectal cancer with multiple colonic polyps

69-year-old male found on colonoscopy to have multiple polyps and a rectal cancer. He underwent preoperative chemoRT, underwent resection and received a single cycle of bolus 5-FU with leucovorin. In early 2007, he had multiple complications and ultimately has a permanent ileostomy. Scans over the next few years have demonstrated nonspecific findings in his thorax however in July 2008 he had a mesenteric mass with adenopathy. These lesions had FDG uptake on PET scan.

Inflammatory Demyelinizing Disease

28-year old female had a sudden visus decrease. Her brain MRI showed several myelin lesions and she was diagnosed with Inflammatory Demyelinizing Disease. Because of her Hodgkin’s lymphoma history it is recommended to implement preventive therapy only if another episode consistent with MS will occur.

Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas

The expert shares broad information regarding Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas: categories, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, risks and outcomes, and qualifications for performing surgery on the pancreas.

 

Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

78 years old male patient diagnosed 6 years ago with poorly differentiated prostate cancer. At present he has metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer. His current treatment consists of Estracyt and LHRH agonist. It is recommended to consider Chemotherapy as an another treatment option.

 

Pancytopenia of uncertain pathogenesis

74-year-old female evaluated for pancytopenia of unknown etiology, which required blood transfusions. Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy showed a hypocellular bone marrow with trilineage maturation. The treatment include immunosuppressive agents and erythropoietin.

Small Cell Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Cervix

36-year-old otherwise healthy female underwent routine tests that found atypical cells in Pap smear. Her cervix was biopsied, and found poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. The findings of the PET-FDG test showed pathological absorption of FDG as a primary tumor of the cervix, towards the left side of the body. Moreover, evidence is seen of nodal metastatic spread in the retroperitoneum and pelvis. In the expert's opinion the patient has locally extensive small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix with extensive pelvic and PA adenopathy.

Multiple Sclerosis

23-year-old female had episodes of hemiparesis, dysmetria and parenthesis underwent MRI that showed a demyelization process. After she was hospitalized with Left Retro-Bulbar Optic Neuritis, she started treatment with weekly injections of AVONEX (Interferon beta-1a). Now she is in good general health and asks about stopping the Anovex treatment. The expert answers that she shouldn't stop the treatment , because the purpose of the medications is to prevent exacerbations, that may leave neurologic residual dysfunction.

Non Small Cell Lung cancer, Stage 4, S/P Right Pneumonectomy

A 74 years old male was diagnosed 3 years ago with non small cell lung carcinoma. Accordingly, it was decided that no chemotherapy should be given at that stage. Year and a half later, a new SOL was found in right lung, and right pneumonectomy was performed. On pathology a well to moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma was found. Lymphatic invasion was identified in lung and mediastinum. A revision on previous specimen was performed and it was concluded that the tumor was morphologically different from the previous specimen.

Respiratory Insufficiency with Tracheotomy_2

72-year-old female recovered from protracted bronchopneumonia and sepsis that demanded mechanical ventilation via oral intubation and tracheostomy. She developed post tracheotomy tracheal stenosis and failed 2 attempts of Montgomery T-tube insertion.

 

Spinal column pathology - additional opinion

39-year-old male experienced in 1994 intense lower back pain after lifting weights, with spontaneous resolution. In 2006, he again experienced lower back pain radiating into both thighs. A lumbar MRI showed degenerative changes and EMG test showed L5 nerve root irritation. His physical examination demonstrated increased reflexes and a concern for cervical stenosis was entertained. Further cervical MRI and lumbar studies showed arthritic changes, and the thoracic MRI showed evidence of spinal cord compression. The surgeon suggested posterior thoracic laminectomy.

Hypoesthesia of the Lower Limb

Male patient had twist injury of his knee with tear of the ACL and was operated. After the surgery he suffered acute lumbalgia. Twelve days later he was re-admitted for knee effusion and elevated body temperature, and arthrolysis and joint washing were performed. Following the procedure he complained of hypoesthesia of the proximal lower left limb and knee. EMG reveled L4 and S1 root damage, and MRI showed reduced lumbar lordosis and different disc lesions. In case of compression neuropathy (tourniquet), the expert recommends symptomatic only treatment.

Cricotracheal resection as treatment for laryngeal stenosis cotton grade IV

The patient is a former premature baby who underwent tracheostomy after 30 days of intubation and laryngotracheoplasty with anterior and posterior costal grafts and implantation of a T-tube. She is now 10 years-old and was diagnosed with Cotton’s grade 4 subglottic stenosis. The restricted airways (laryngeal stenosis) cause severe breathing and communication difficulties.

Post infectious hypothyroidism

35-year-old female felt unusual tiredness a few months after giving birth, she gained weight and felt pain all over her body, paresthesias in her hands, and loss of energy. Examination revealed diffusely enlarged thyroid gland, the patient was clinically hypothyroid, and levothyroxine was prescribed. In the expert's opinion, the high TSH and low levels of T3 and T4 suggests the patient most likely suffers from Hashimotos thyroiditis and replacement with thyroid hormone can be a solution for her condition.

B-cell lymphoma

59-year-old-male underwent biopsy, after founding epigastric mass, and was diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma. He was treated as an aggressive lymphoma with R-CHOP. Because of neurtopenia, the planned 6 cycle regimen was not completed and a radiation course was administered. Since then the patient feels well, but continues to have prolonged and persistent neutropenia with mild thrombocytopenia. The expert suggests differential diagnosis of the bone marrow problem, and recommends additional diagnostic workup.

Renal Neoplasia of not yet Determined Nature

52-year-old male with no relevant past medical history. An ultrasound of his urinary system diagnosed a space occupying lesion in the left kidney. Further investigation with abdominal CT demonstrated a nonhomogenous solid mass with dimensions of 4X2.7cm located at the lateral aspect of the lower pole of the kidney. After administration of contrast media it enhances. The specialist determined “incidental diagnosis of left renal neoplasia" and recommended to carry out a lesion enucleoresection. Partial/ radical nephrectomy surgery was scheduled.

Mild Alzheimer’s disease – additional opinion

78-year-old male was diagnosed with possible mild Alzheimer’s disease. Medical history suggests a condition running a slow but steadily deteriorating course characterized by apathy as well as by impairment of memory, word finding difficulties and reduced vocabulary, impaired ability to make calculation and handle finances and difficulties in managing house work and going outside unsupervised. An episode with characteristics of delirium in the past is described as well. The neuropsychological evaluation describes moderate dementia.

Post traumatic pain in knee

A 37 years old female suffered from multiple traumas caused by road accident with admittance to emergency room- multiple contusions, cervicalgia(due to whiplash) and contusion-laceration injury to left knee. An MRI scan of the knee was performed two months later (MRI findings are attached below) and the patient was examined by a specialist who gave a diagnosis of medial meniscal tear and femur-kneecap pain in the left knee. A broken medial meniscus of the left knee diagnosis should lead to an arthroscopic operation.

Vesical Neoformations in Glandular Cystic Cystitis

58-year-old male diagnosed with sigmoid colon diverticulosis. In the past (2000&2008) he underwent trans urethral resections of bladder lesions which were diagnosed to be glandular cystitis cystica. Follow up cystoscopy performed lately revealed two new strawberry like lesions close to the bladder neck. Urine cytology was negative for malignant cells, pelvic ultrasound demonstrated a thickened bladder. The patient was offered another resection surgery.

Axonal and Demyelinative Sensorimotor Neuropathy

66-year-old male with a 6-year history of sensory symptoms in the feet and hands. He describes a sensation of cold and stinging in the feet; and numbness in the hands, especially at night. Nerve conduction and EMG demonstrated axonal and demyelinative sensorimotor neuropathy with neurogenic changes in muscles. Follow-up nerve conduction testing that was performed 2 years later showed similar findings.

Right and left lateral tibiotarsal instability

A 50 years old male with generalized ligamentous laxity and long history of distortions (Sprains) of the ankles. On the right ankle the incidence and severity of the sprains had increased significantly in recent months. On MRI imaging of both ankles: in the right ankle the lateral stabilizing ligaments are damaged and incongruent. On the left ankle the picture is similar with an old fracture of the tip of the medial malleolus which is not united, but not significantly displaced. Right ankle instability was diagnosed and  “Brodstrum“ type operation on right ankle has been suggested.

Cystic Pleuro-Pulmonary Blastoma

2-year-old female had been diagnosed with Pleuropulmonary Blastoma. The disease extent included the lung and pleura with no signs of metastatic spread. It was decided to start with 3 cycles of chemotherapy and afterwards to carry out a CT scan reassessment and surgical operation. The expert agrees that patients treated with combination of chemotherapy and complete surgical resection do better. Achieving total resection of the tumor results in a significantly better prognosis, whereas extrapulmonary involvement at diagnosis results in worse prognosis.

Peyronie’s Disease - Penile Disease

42-year-old male patient complained of penile pain. Physical examination and imaging studies were compatible with the diagnosis of Peyronie's disease. Cialis 20 mg was given in order to perform "vascular exercise" that should prepare him for ESWL treatment to break the plaques when the condition stabilizes.

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy

66-year-old male was diagnosed with Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy. The expert recommends to try two different medications before
considering surgery as an alternative.
 

Incidental Finding of Thyroid Gland Nodule

30-year-old female was noted to have two right lobe of thyroid gland nodules on a neck ultrasound. A diagnosis of incidental finding of thyroid gland nodule in the setting of normal thyroid gland function was established. In the expert's opinion, the clinical presentation is consistent with a "cold" thyroid gland nodule. He recommends an ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy, because the results of the cytology can guide the treatment and dictate the extent of surgery.

Diffuse Intra-Axial expansive Lesion of the Enchephalic Trunk not surgically investigated _2

7-year-old boy was diagnosed with diffused intra-axial brainstem expansive lesion. He underwent radiation therapy but his physical condition is worrisome. His relatives ask the expert's opinion about experimental therapy consists of combination Antineoplaston and radiation therapy for the treatment of gliomas in children, that is now in clinical trial. The expert doesn't recommend it.

Left frontotemporal craniolacunia

11-months-old male showed signs of tumefaction in the left frontotemporal region. An ultrasound showed a solid noncalcified neoformation, and a brain CAT scan showed a small solid lesion resulting in erosion of the cranial theca both in the external and internal table. Based on clinical status and tomodensitometric appearance, the diagnosis of suspected eosinophilic granuloma or hystiocytosis X was made, and a surgical curettage of the craniolacunia was recommended in order to comfirm the diagnosis.

Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Aortic Stenosis

62-year-old female with systolic heart murmur for 6 years. Her first echocardiogram showed mild to moderate LV dysfunction with regional wall motion abnormality. The second echocardiogram the left ventricular function was interpreted as normal, there was left ventricular hypertrophy and severe aortic stenosis. The expert recommends to perform another third echocardiogram. If the patient has truly left ventricular function and severs aortic stenosis then aortic valve replacement surgery is recommended, even if she is asymptomatic.

spreading pancreatic cancer

33-year-old female was diagnosed with multiple endocrine neoplasia of the pancreas. She underwent removal of the pancreatic lesion and lymph node dissection, another surgery to remove the distal pancreas and spleen, and parathyroidectomy, but the Octreoscan revealed recurrence.  

Juvenile Arthritis with Systemic Onset (Stills Disease)

50-year-old male was diagnosed with Juvenile arthritis with systemic onset (Stills disease) after having symptoms of high fever, rashes and pain. He was treated with high doses of corticosteroids, but had two exacerbations in the last 2 years. In the current time he suffers of swelling of knee joints and hand joints, and occasionally a feeling of burning feet or cold feet. In the expert's opinion, the clinical description fit well with the diagnosis of adult onset systemic arthritis which manifestations are similar to the juvenile systemic arthritis.

Metastatic melanoma stage IIIC

A 58 year-old woman who first presented for evaluation of a bleeding pigmented lesion on the back. An excisional biopsy was performed and revealed a nodular melanoma. A wide excision was performed and no residual melanoma was identified. After a sentinel lymph node biopsy found to be positive, a completion of node dissection was performed and on pathological evaluation, total 6 of 17 lymph nodes contained melanoma.
Staging studies included whole body PET/CT scan and a head CT. FDG uptake by PET was noted in the left axilla only, with no evidence of more distant metastatic disease.

Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney

49-year-old male was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma and underwent left radical nephrectomy. The expert recommended either close observation every few months or participating in an adjuvant vaccine trial or monoclonal antibody therapy trial.

Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma of Breast – additional opinion

51-year-old female was diagnosed with stage I, Grade I infiltrating duct carcinoma of the breast. Estrogen receptors were highly positive and Progesterone receptors negative. Based on these findings the expert advises that she receive adjuvant radiotherapy and hormonotherapy. The adjuvant hormonotherapy consist of initial treatment by Tamoxifen for 2 years, thereafter switched to an Aromatase Inhibitor. The expert also informs the patient about potential side effects of Tamoxifen treatment, which are not frequent and generally mild.

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma

51-year-old male with past medical history that is remarkable for Sino-nasal adenocarcinoma which was resected 13 years ago, and a recurrent local tumor which was re-operated. Since late 2007, the patient has been noticed to have mild macrocytic anemia and leucopenia, and the hematologist thought it might represent a myelodysplastic syndrome.

Back Pain with Partial Sensory Leg Anesthesia

25-year-old male had an outbreak of sharp pain in the loin, and afterwards complained of partial sensory anesthesia in his leg. He has been given prescribed treatment that included blockades, magnetotherapy, and ultrasound massage with hydrocortison. He experienced back pain for the first time after lifting a heavy thing, and got a pain relief after taking a pain-killer and applying Finalgon ointment. After few months the pain reoccurred. The patient then got a MRT test and was prescribed Finalgon and Milgamma pills, but developed an allergy towards Milgamma.

Metastatic well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma in liver

78-year-old male was diagnosed with Metastatic well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma in liver. There is an undefined finding in the cecum that might be the primary tumor, and hepatic metastases that can be surgically respected. The imaging tests support the assumption that the primary tumor is in the small intestine.

Acute Infectious Mononucleosis with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)

Patient with clinical and laboratory picture compatible with acute infectious mononucleosis with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) receives from the expert wide information regarding the virus, the symptoms and clinical course, the needed follow-up tests etc.

Chronic pain of undetermined origin

67-year-old male suffering a constant pain at the bottom of the lower left rib cage for the last two years. The pain is described as not being extreme nor affected by breathing; it is dull and always present. Various imaging scans were unremarkable although diffuse degenerative disk spinal abnormalities were noted.

MDS – Myelodysplastic Syndrome

74-year-old male with gradual pan-cytopenia with predominant thrombocytopenia underwent a bone marrow biopsy that confirmed the diagnosis of Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). He is currently in good general health except for slowly progressive weakness and being constantly tired. In the expert's opinion, there is no indication for therapy at this time, since the counts are satisfactory for every-day living. Nevertheless, the treating options are erythopoietin injections, lenalidomide, Vidaza or Dacogen therapy, or stem cell transplantation.

Facial pain after thyroidectomy

A 47 years old female underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, followed by treatment with radioactive Iodine (I131).
Since then, the patient has been suffering from severe facial pain (left>right), dry mouth and recurrent local infections. She was diagnosed with bilateral sialadenitis, and was repeatedly treated with endoscopy and repeat washing. Medical treatment for neurogenic pain wasn't helpfull, as well as visits to different salivary gland specialists.

Motor Neuron Disease

71-year-old female developed progressive dysarthria and dysphagia. Her doctor describes her speech difficulty as “Spastic dysarthria with slow and nasal speech" and noticed decreased mobility in the tongue and palate. She underwent multiple investigations and started Rilutek. The differential diagnosis of isolated swallowing and speaking difficulties include: Early motor neuron disease, Cranial neuropathies, Myopathies, Neuromuscular junction disorders and Neurodegenerative movement disorders.

Cancer of Colon with Metastases

70-year-old-male was diagnosed with colon cancer. After undergoing a right hemicolectomy, hepatic lesions were revealed. Three months after starting chemotherapy a CT revealed recurrent hepatic disease and celiac lymphadenopathy. He underwent directed therapy with radiofrequency ablation and stereotactic radiation, but unfortunately a repeat CT showed progressive disease in the liver and new pulmonary disease. Upon surgical exploration, his liver disease was deemed too extensive for surgical resection.

Diabetes Mellitus Type II, Dyslipidemia, Diabetic Retinopathy
69-year-old male suffers of diabetes complicated by neuropathy and retinopathy. He had uveitis and choroiditis which were fungal in origin, and underwent cataract surgery.  Medical reports describe myopic maculopathy and neovascular age related macular degeneration in the right eye, and non-prolific diabetic retinopathy in the left eye.
Dental Case

60-year-old male was informed by the dentist that his 44th tooth would have to be removed. He would prefer to avoid the avulsion. The expert advises him to lose the tooth for the success of comprehensive prosthetic rehabilitation.